42 Facts About Jackie Robinson

Keystone, Getty Images
Keystone, Getty Images

On January 31, 1919—100 years ago today—Jackie Robinson was born in Cairo, Georgia. Twenty-eight years later, he broke the baseball color line and became the first African American to play on a major sports team. Here are 42 facts to celebrate the legendary athlete.

1. Jack "Jackie" Roosevelt Robinson was born on January 31, 1919, in Cairo, Georgia. Shortly after his birth, his family moved and settled in Pasadena, California.

2. President Theodore Roosevelt, who died 25 days before Robinson was born, was the inspiration for his middle name.

3. He was the youngest of five children—Edgar, Frank, Matthew “Mack,” and Willa Mae—and grew up in relative poverty in a well-off community in Pasadena.

4. Robinson attended John Muir High School, where he was placed on the Pomona Annual Baseball Tournament All-Star Team with fellow future Baseball Hall of Famers Ted Williams of the Boston Red Sox and Bob Lemon of the Cleveland Indians.

5. He was also an accomplished tennis player, winning the junior boys singles championship in the Pacific Coast Negro Tennis Tournament.

6. Jackie’s brother Mack was an adept athlete and a splendid sprinter. He won a Silver Medal in the 200 meters behind Jesse Owens during the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany.

The Robinson family
Getty Images

7. In 1942, Jackie Robinson was drafted into the Army. He was assigned to a segregated Army Cavalry unit in Fort Riley, Kansas.

8. While in the Army, Robinson became friends with boxing champion Joe Louis when the heavyweight, who was stationed at Fort Riley at the time, used his celebrity to protest the delayed entry of black soldiers in an Office Candidate School (OCS). As a result, Robinson was commissioned as a second lieutenant in 1943.

9. After an incident where he refused to sit in the back of an unsegregated bus, military police arrested Robinson at the request of a duty officer, who later requested Robinson be court-martialed. At the time of the proceedings, Robinson was prohibited from being deployed overseas to the World War II battlefronts. He never saw combat during the war.

10. Robinson was acquitted and then assigned to Camp Breckinridge in Kentucky, where he worked as an Army athletics coach until he was given an honorable discharge in 1944. During his time at the camp, Robinson was encouraged to tryout for the Kansas City Monarchs in the Negro National League.

11. In 1945, Robinson signed a contract to play for the Kansas City Monarchs. He was paid $400 a month (about $5100 today) to play shortstop and eventually was placed in the Negro League All-Star Game that year.

12. Robinson married Rachel Islum—who he had met in 1941 during his senior year at UCLA—in 1946. They had their first son, Jackie Robinson Jr., that November. The Robinsons had two more children: a daughter, Sharon, and another son, David.


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13. Robinson played Minor League Baseball for the Montreal Royals in 1946, until he was called up to play for the Brooklyn Dodgers in the Major Leagues in 1947.

14. He made his Major League Baseball debut on April 15, 1947, at Ebbets Field in Brooklyn, New York. He became the first African-American baseball player in Major League history.

15. He also won Rookie of the Year in 1947 with a batting average of .297, 175 hits, 12 home runs, and 48 runs batted in.

16. Jackie Robinson had a close friendship with Larry Doby of the Cleveland Indians, who was the first African-American baseball player in the American League. The two men broke the color barrier in baseball in the same year and would talk to each other on the telephone to share their experiences with racism during the season.

17. Dodgers teammate Pee Wee Reese defended Robinson against violent and nasty racial slurs during his rookie season. Reese famously put his arm around him and said, “You can hate a man for many reasons. Color is not one of them,” as a response to fans shouting racial slurs at Robinson.

18. On August 29, 1948, in a 12-7 win against the St. Louis Cardinals, Robinson “hit for the cycle” with a home run, a triple, a double, and then a single in the same game.

19. Robinson was the National League Batting and Stolen Bases Champion with a batting average of .342 and 37 stolen bases in 1949.

20. He was also a six time All-Star between the years 1949 to 1954.


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21. In 1949, Robinson was called to testify before the United States House of Representatives’ Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC). He was subpoenaed because of comments made about him by prominent African-American actor Paul Robson. At first, Robinson was hesitant to testify, but then was ultimately compelled to do so because he feared not doing so would hurt his baseball career.

22. The National League’s Most Valuable Player Award went to Robinson in 1949, after his first appearance in the MLB All-Star Game. Robinson later took his team to the World Series, but would lose against the New York Yankees.

23. Jackie Robinson played himself in The Jackie Robinson Story, a biopic about his life released in 1950. Academy Award-nominated female actor Ruby Dee played Robinson’s wife Rachel “Rae” Isum Robinson.

24. During the off-season, Robinson went on a vaudeville and speaking tour of the South, where he would answer pre-set questions about his life. He actually made more money on these tours than he did on his contract with the Brooklyn Dodgers.

25. Robinson played in six World Series, but only won one in 1955 against the New York Yankees in a seven game series. Robinson didn’t play in 49 games that season and missed Game 7; Don Hoak played third base in Robinson’s place.

26. At 37, Robinson retired from Major League Baseball and the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1956 due to the visible effects of diabetes. Unbeknownst to the Brooklyn Dodgers, Robinson took a position with the American coffee company Chock Full O’ Nuts and agreed to quit baseball.

27. From 1957 to 1964, Jackie Robinson served as the vice president of personnel for Chock Full O’ Nuts coffee. He was the first African-American vice president of a major American corporation.

28. Robinson was a political independent, but had very conservative views on the Vietnam War. He also supported Richard Nixon in the 1960 Presidential election against John F. Kennedy, although Robinson admired Kennedy’s stance on civil rights once he was elected. He was later dismayed with Republicans for not supporting the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and soon after became a Democrat.

29. In 1962, Jackie Robinson was inducted in the Baseball Hall of Fame during his first year of eligibility. He was the first African American inducted at the Cooperstown Hall of Fame and Museum.

30. Jackie Robinson was always seen as a large figure in the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. once said Robinson was “a legend and symbol in his own time” who “challenged the dark skies of intolerance and frustration.”

Jackie Robinson with his son at the Civil Rights March on Washington DC in 1963
Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons

31. In 1964, Robinson co-founded the Freedom National Bank—a black owned and operated bank in Harlem, New York—with businessman Dunbar McLaurin. Robinson was the commercial bank’s first Chairman of the Board. His wife later served as Chairman until 1990 when the bank closed.

32. Robinson was also the first African-American TV sports analyst. He broadcasted for ABC’s Major League Baseball Game of the Week telecasts in 1965. Robinson later worked as a part-time commentator for the Montreal Expos in 1972.

33. On June 4, 1972, the Dodgers retired Jackie Robinson’s uniform number 42, as well as Sandy Koufax’s number 32 and Roy Campanella’s number 39.

34. Robinson died of a heart attack on October 24, 1972 in Stamford, Connecticut, at age 53.

35. In 1973, Robinson’s widow, Rachel, started the Jackie Robinson Foundation, a non-profit organization that gives college scholarships to minorities. The Foundation also preserves the legacy of Jackie Robinson as a baseball player and a civil rights pioneer.

36. The house in Brooklyn, New York, where Jackie Robinson lived while he played for the Brooklyn Dodgers was declared a National Historical Landmark in 1976.

37. On March 1, 1981, American astronomer Schelte John “Bobby” Bus discovered an asteroid at the Siding Spring Observatory in New South Wales, Australia. Bus named the asteroid “4319 Jackierobinson,” after his favorite baseball player.

38. President Ronald Reagan posthumously awarded Jackie Robinson with the Presidential Medal of Freedom—the highest award given to a civilian for their contributions to world peace, cultural, or other significant public or private endeavors—on March 26, 1984.

39. You won't see any baseball players wearing the number 42: In 1997, Robinson’s number was retired throughout Major League Baseball. This was the first and only time a jersey number had been retired throughout an entire professional sports league.

40. In 1999, Robinson was added to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team along with Cal Ripken Jr., Joe DiMaggio, Willie Mays, and Ty Cobb. Fans chose the final selections from a list compiled of the 100 greatest Major League Baseball players from the past century.

41. April 15, 2004, became Jackie Robinson Day and all uniformed players in Major League Baseball were required to wear number 42 on their jerseys to honor Robinson’s memory and legacy to the sport.

42. More than 20 years after he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, President George W. Bush also posthumously awarded Jackie Robinson with the Congressional Gold Medal—the highest honor the legislative branch can bestow on a civilian and must be co-sponsored by two-thirds of members in the House and the Senate—for his contributions to American history. He became the second baseball player to receive this accolade after Pittsburgh Pirates Right-Fielder Roberto Clemente in 1973.

An earlier version of this article appeared in 2013.

15 Rim-Shattering Facts About Shaquille O'Neal

Mike Ehrmann/Getty Images
Mike Ehrmann/Getty Images

The only thing bigger than the 7-foot-1-inch, 325-pound Shaquille O'Neal during his playing career was his outlandish personality. After a remarkable 19-year tenure on the hardwood, these days, Shaq holds court on TNT's Inside the NBA, bringing his trademark humor to the floor and verbally dunking on his preferred sparring partner, Charles Barkley. But well before he hung up his Shaqnosis sneakers in 2011 and stepped behind the commentating desk, the larger-than-life basketball legend had created a sizable name for himself as well. Here are a few things you may not know about this American icon.

1. Shaq was estranged from his biological father until he was in his forties.

Shaquille Rashaun O'Neal was born on March 6, 1972. (He weighed 7 pounds 13 ounces—about average for a baby.) His mother, Lucille O'Neal, had just graduated high school, and his biological father, Joe Toney, was an all-state high school guard who lost his basketball scholarship to Seton Hall because of drug addiction. While Shaq was still an infant, Toney was sentenced to federal prison, and when he was released, Lucille got Joe to legally relinquish his parental rights to Shaq's stepfather, an Army drill sergeant named Phillip Harrison, who raised him from the time he was 2.

Shaq's resulting childhood was a fulfilling one, though he would often return to Vonda's Kitchen, a diner in Newark, New Jersey located right below Toney's apartment, and wonder if he was going to run into his biological father. Once he started to make a name for himself, Toney tried reaching out—one time in Orlando, Shaq left a basketball arena through a back entrance to avoid having to have any interaction with Toney, who had shown up and wanted to meet. Shaq even publicly outlined his feelings about their intentional estrangement in a 1994 rap song, "Biological Didn't Bother." But, with his Basketball Hall of Fame induction on the horizon in the summer of 2016, Shaq finally agreed to meet Joe, then nearing 70, at that restaurant. "I don't hate you," Shaq told him. "I had a good life. I had Phil."

2. Shaq's stepfather once lost some teeth to a Boston Celtics legend.

Harrison, who was also known as Sarge, was a gruff parent who often relied on physical discipline for the young Shaq, claiming he'd rather punish his son himself than see it done on the streets of Newark, beyond his purview. Though tough, Harrison was a pillar in Shaq's life, and Shaq frequently praised Phil for keeping him out of trouble and giving him direction.

Luckily for little Shaquille, Harrison was a ball player himself (he'd actually played against Toney in high school), and he coached Shaq's youth basketball teams throughout his childhood. Harrison would also sometimes brag about the time Dave Cowens, the future Celtics Hall of Fame center, knocked out some of his teeth during a particularly aggressive game of pickup. In August 1969, according to the Tallahassee Democrat, Cowens, who was then a star at Florida State University, happened to be in the Newark area because he decided spend a few days with a fellow FSU teammate who was from nearby. That game of pickup only happened because Cowens decided to bail on his original plan: attending Woodstock.

3. Shaq was already 6 feet 4 inches tall at age 10.

No one was more responsible for kids quitting youth basketball in the greater Newark area than the Big Shaqtus in the mid-'80s. In fact, Shaq remembers a rival's father once storming the court and removing his son from the competition mid-game, shouting, "He's not 10. Bulls***. He's 10, he gonna be the best big man in the world." The man, while enraged, was not at all wrong. By 13, Shaq had grown to 6 feet 6 inches and wore size 17 shoes.

4. Shaq's jersey number was inspired by an NBA legend, with a twist.

Shaquille O'Neal playing for the Orlando Magic in 1995.
Shaquille O'Neal playing for the Orlando Magic in 1995.
TONY RANZE/AFP/Getty Images

Harrison was responsible for Shaq embracing his size and using it to score under the basket, rather than deferring and shying away from his clear physical advantages. By Shaq's teenage years, Harrison had been restationed and moved the family to San Antonio. A now poised and confident player, Shaq led his high school team to a 68-1 record during his junior and senior seasons. The school didn't possess a No. 33 jersey, so Shaq's attempts to honor Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, the trailblazing NBA center, were thwarted. Hence, his famous No. 32 jersey was born. When he played at LSU, he was able to nab 33, but in his rookie NBA season in Orlando, veteran Terry Catledge refused to give up his 33 jersey, so it was back to 32 for life for Shaq for the remainder of his time with the Magic.

5. Shaq led his college's conference in basically everything his sophomore year.

The 1990-91 season was Shaq's coming out party. During his second collegiate season at LSU, the Diesel was a man among boys, becoming the first player to ever lead the SEC in scoring (27.6 points per game), rebounds (14.7), field goal percentage (62.8 percent), and blocked shots (140 on the year). And he took his opponents by surprise. Those who expected a round mound of rebound (i.e. another Charles Barkley) were taken aback by his sheer power. As rival Darryl "Ice" Jones of Southeastern Louisiana so eloquently put it, "I thought Shaq would be fat. But he's got no fat, none whatsoever. He's just seven feet of muscle, a muscle monster."

6. Shaq was famously left off the original Dream Team.

Shaquille O'Neal is shown on a TV monitor as the U.S. Olympic basketball team is introduced during a press conference in 1996.
Shaquille O'Neal is shown on a TV monitor as the U.S. Olympic basketball team is introduced during a press conference in 1996.
JEFF HAYNES/AFP/Getty Images

And yes, he was upset about it. While the powers that be attempted to choose the best NBA talent possible to represent Team USA and take on the world at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, they reserved one roster spot for a collegiate star. Shaq was a junior at LSU at the time and fully eligible, but the spot instead went with Christian Laettner, a Duke standout who was thought of as more polished. At the time, the international free throw lane was designed differently, and the committee filling out the roster believed that would cause traditional post-up centers (like Shaq) to lose their effectiveness.

Of course, the young Shaq didn't take it well. "I was pissed off," he recalled 20 years later. "I was jealous. But then I had to come to the realization that I was a more explosive, more powerful player, but Christian Laettner was a little bit more fundamentally sound than I was." Luckily, the snub only motivated him: Team USA took home the gold in '92, and they did again in Atlanta during the '96 games. Shaq was on that team.

7. Shaq's LSU teams weren't successful in March Madness.

Somehow, despite featuring the monstrous 7-foot-1-inch, 294-pound Shaq for three full SEC seasons (the Southeastern Conference, the division LSU competes in), his LSU Tigers only went 2-3 in three seasons in the Big Dance, never advancing past the second round. Shaq ended his 1991-92 SEC Player of the Year season with a remarkable 36 points and 12 rebounds (while stunningly going 12-for-12 from the line—a feat he'd never accomplish once he went pro) in an 89-79 loss to Indiana. But these early exits certainly didn't deter NBA scouts; he was still the first overall draft pick in 1992, heading to the Orlando Magic.

8. A rookie Shaq was sickened by the smell of alcohol.

Shaq was immediately the toast of the NBA. Among his many accolades, he was named Rookie of the Year for the '92-'93 season and he nabbed a starting spot in the All-Star Game his first four seasons. But though young Shaq was the new face of the game and the life of the party, at 21, he couldn't stomach alcohol. "Can't even tolerate the smell of table wine," his teammate Dennis Scott used to say. Turns out, there was a good reason for that.

"My father caught me sipping a beer with my cousins when I was, like, 13," O'Neal told Vanity Fair years later. "He made me drink a 12-pack right then. Not only did I get drunk, I hated beer, and I never had the urge to drink again."

Despite his distaste for the stuff, Shaq eventually marketed his own line of vodka, the excellently named Luv Shaq.

9. As Lakers teammates, Shaq and Kobe didn't initially click on court.

Los Angeles Lakers Kobe Bryant and Shaquille O'Neal during a game in 2001.
Los Angeles Lakers Kobe Bryant and Shaquille O'Neal during a game in 2001.
Vince Bucci/AFP/Getty Images

The most prominent portion of Shaq's career was spent in Hollywood, and his eight seasons with the Lakers brought three NBA Championships to the city. But while Shaq's L.A. years are known for being unfathomably dominant, many wonder how fruitful they could've been if he and teammate Kobe Bryant hadn't been so incompatible off the court.

Bizarrely, the two couldn't sync their play properly from the outset based on talent alone. Long before their famous feud and struggle for credit and control of the locker room began, two of their first three campaigns together ended in embarrassing playoff sweeps. It wasn't until head coach Phil Jackson arrived prior to the 1999-2000 season that anything seemed to click. Once Jackson installed his famous triangle offense (emphasizing perfect spacing and high-IQ passing decisions), everything changed; an unstoppable three-peat followed, highlighted by Shaq's averages in the 2000 Finals (45 mins, 38 points, 17 rebounds per game).

10. He destroyed so many backboards the NBA panicked and changed the rule book.

Shaq soundly defeated many inferior opponents over the course of his career, and a few of those opponents were made of solid metal. In one infamous game against the Phoenix Suns in 1993, a particularly thunderous dunk caused the entire basket and its stanchions to collapse; the hoop's whole apparatus had to be wheeled into the tunnel for some mid-game welding. The big man made such a habit of terrorizing the equipment that the NBA freaked out and came out hard in favor of reinforcing their centerpieces. Said competition committee chairman Rod Thorn, "Whether it was Shaquille O'Neal or someone else, with the size of these guys, it was just a matter of time. He just happened to be a little bigger and stronger than most."

The league eventually turned breaking the basket ring or backboard into a technical foul.

11. The New York Times hated his acting performances.

In a cinematic version of love the player, hate the game, The Times's review of 1997's Steel praised Shaq's "endearing smile" and "genial personality," but felt compelled to admit he had an "almost total lack of charisma and acting skills." The year before, they weren't quite as kind to Kazaam (not to be confused with Sinbad's non-existent Shazaam). "Mr. O'Neal can't hold a flickering lamp to Robin Williams," the paper of record claimed (which, to be fair, who can?), and bemoaned that he didn't "slam-dunk the script into the nearest wastebasket." Shaq hasn't done many acting roles since then, but he's done plenty of cameos in everything from The Simpsons and The Real Househusbands of Hollywood to The Lego Movie and What Women Want.

12. Shaq loves nicknames.

Shaquille O'Neal onstage during his Basketball Hall of Fame Enshrinement Ceremony in 2016.
Shaquille O'Neal onstage during his Basketball Hall of Fame Enshrinement Ceremony in 2016.
Jim Rogash/Getty Images

Shaq has propensity for clever nicknaming, and it crosses genres: He's had nicknames and alternate personas spin off into a video game (Shaq Fu) and a rap album (his early nickname "The Diesel" became Shaq Diesel, a 1993 rap album featuring Phife Dawg). Other legendary monikers include "The Big Aristotle" (self-christened in 2000) and "M.D.E." (Most Dominant Ever, which he crafted after his second Lakers title). He called his pool at his former Miami home Shaqapulco.

But the Big Fella (that's another one) isn't just giving out lasting pseudonyms for himself—he's the one who coined "The Big Fundamental" for San Antonio Spurs legend and constant Western Conference rival Tim Duncan early in his career, which has stood the test of time.

13. Shaq once blamed his real-life divorce on his on-court ex, Kobe Bryant.

And we all learned about it in a 2008 freestyle rap. While defending himself against a 2004 rape charge, Bryant alleged that Shaq had paid up to $1 million to various women in order to keep them quiet about his own affairs. "This whole situation is ridiculous," Shaq told ESPN at the time.

A few years later, however, when Shaq and his wife of nearly five years, Shaunie O'Neal (née Nelson), separated in September 2007, he was singing a different tune. Quoth Big Shaqtus in verse: "I'm a horse, Kobe ratted me out, that's why I'm gettin' divorced."

Shaq and Shaunie, who had four kids together during their decade-long relationship, officially ended things in November 2009. And though there was no word on seven-figure payouts, Shaunie alluded to the breakup of her marriage during an episode of VH1's Basketball Wives, which she created and is the executive producer on. "Our Blackberries got switched," she said of a time she went to an event at their kids' school, "and I was like, 'Damn, my phone is going off a lot.' Just girl, after girl, after girl—like, 'Baby, last night what you did.'"

14. The "Hack-a-Shaq" technique was actually invented to stop Dennis Rodman.

Blame former Dallas Mavericks coach Don Nelson for this one. In a December 1997 road game against the Chicago Bulls, Nelson asked rookie Bubba Wells to foul Rodman as many times as possible in order to send the poor-shooting Worm to the line and steal a few possessions. Nelson's ingenious (and incredibly annoying) strategy worked. He went on to victimize Shaq, who was a brutally low 52.7 percent career free throw shooter. The strategy spread through the league like a disease, but in 2016 a rule was approved to curb intentional fouling. The term Hack-a-Shaq, though? Brilliant.

15. Shaq has a major stake in eSports.

Shaquille O'Neal watches the Brooklyn Nets play the Sacramento Kings in 2014.
Shaquille O'Neal watches the Brooklyn Nets play the Sacramento Kings in 2014.
STR/AFP/Getty Images

Call him The Big Controller. Shaq was early to eSports as an investor; in 2016, he, along with Yankees vet Alex Rodriguez and former Phillie Jimmy Rollins, got involved in an ownership group that has a stake in NRG Gaming, a prominent organization of eSports athletes. Now, Shaq is the general manager of Kings Guard, the Sacramento Kings' entrant into the NBA's official 2K league, where competitors face off in NBA 2K, the league's preeminent basketball video game.

And in case you need a soundtrack to your gaming, Shaq has reentered that space as well—he recently teamed with DJ NGHTMRE and Lil Jon to produce the EDM track "BANG," his first new single in 20 years.

What Happens to the Losing Team's Pre-Printed Championship Shirts?

Adam Glanzman, Getty Images
Adam Glanzman, Getty Images

Following a big win in the Super Bowl, World Series, NBA Finals, or any other major sporting event, fans want to get their hands on championship merchandise as quickly as possible. To meet this demand and cash in on the wallet-loosening "We’re #1" euphoria, manufacturers and retailers produce and stock two sets of T-shirts, hats, and other merchandise that declare each team the champ.

On Super Bowl Sunday, that means apparel for the winner—either the New England Patriots or the Los Angeles Rams—will quickly fill clothing racks and gets tossed to players on the field once the game concludes. But what happens to the losing team's clothing? It's destined for charity.

Good360, a charitable organization based in Alexandria, Virginia, handles excess consumer merchandise and distributes it to those in need overseas. The losing team's apparel—usually shirts, hats, and sweatshirts—will be held in inventory locations across the U.S. Following the game, Good360 will be informed of exactly how much product is available and will then determine where the goods can best be of service.

Good360 chief marketing officer Shari Rudolph tells Mental Floss there's no exact count just yet. But in the past, the merchandise has been plentiful. Based on strong sales after the Chicago Bears’s 2007 NFC Championship win, for example, Sports Authority printed more than 15,000 shirts proclaiming a Bears Super Bowl victory well before the game even started. And then the Colts beat the Bears, 29-17.

Good360 took over the NFL's excess goods distribution in 2015. For almost two decades prior, an international humanitarian aid group called World Vision collected the unwanted items for MLB and NFL runners-up at its distribution center in Pittsburgh, then shipped them overseas to people living in disaster areas and impoverished nations. After losing Super Bowl XLIII in 2009, Arizona Cardinals gear was sent to children and families in El Salvador. In 2010, after the New Orleans Saints defeated Indianapolis, the Colts gear printed up for Super Bowl XLIV was sent to earthquake-ravaged Haiti.

In 2011, after Pittsburgh lost to the Green Bay Packers, the Steelers Super Bowl apparel went to Zambia, Armenia, Nicaragua, and Romania.

Fans of the Super Bowl team that comes up short can take heart: At least the spoils of losing will go to a worthy cause.

An earlier version of this story appeared in 2009. Additional reporting by Jake Rossen.

All images courtesy of World Vision, unless otherwise noted.

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