Look Up! The Eta Aquarid Meteor Shower Is Here

Rocky Raybell via Flickr // CC BY 2.0
Rocky Raybell via Flickr // CC BY 2.0

Set your alarm for the predawn hours of Saturday May 6, go outside, and catch the Eta Aquarid meteor shower—one of two annual showers caused by the collision of the Earth and the debris field of Halley’s comet. It’s not the most spectacular shower of the year, but as it peaks tomorrow morning, you can count on it to deliver a ghostly streak of light every few minutes.

The shower is named for its seeming point of origin—the constellation Aquarius—but don’t confine your view to that one spot in the sky. The streaks of light will seem to be everywhere. If your eyes have adjusted to the darkness, the skies are clear, and the area is sufficiently dark, there’s an excellent chance you’ll see something special—no telescope or binoculars required.

HALLEY’S PHANTASM

Going back millennia, every 75 to 76 years the comet Halley has appeared in the sky, dazzling and mystifying the creatures of Earth. As of 1986—its last appearance over Earth—it was visible with the naked eye despite light pollution caused by poorly designed streetlights, ill-conceived fixtures, and the over and upward illumination of buildings in areas rural and urban alike. Most of us have never seen the night sky, but rather, some poor, washed out approximation of it. You look up, think you see space, and wonder why we’re spending so much money to visit so little. A proper night sky is a kaleidoscope of greens, blues, teals, and violets. There are more stars out there than grains of sand on the Earth. The first time you see the Milky Way in all its splendor, you may wonder why we do anything other than explore the cosmos.

milky way galaxy

Lukas Schlagenhauf via Flickr // CC BY-ND 2.0

All of this bears note because for most of Halley’s history, there were no electric lights to outshine the universe. There were no planes or space stations to make illuminated objects coursing across the sky humdrum affairs filtered from thought. When something moved in the night sky back then, it was stark, obvious, and unnerving. Today we see a meteor shower and wonder how long the faint show might last. Centuries ago, people saw meteor showers and wondered if the world were about to end. The first recorded showing of Halley was possibly in 476 BCE. Aeschylus hadn’t yet written Agamemnon. The Roman Republic was in its infancy. Its recurrence has been associated with the birth of Jesus (its appearance may have coincided with the Star of Bethlehem), has been seen as a harbinger of death for royalty, and was a guiding light for Genghis Khan. Astronomy has always been as much about humanity as it is about the cosmos.

HOW TO MAKE A METEOR

The same dark skies unobscured by light pollution would have made the Aquarids—and every meteor shower to some extent—must-see viewing. Its first recorded observance was in 401 CE (the Roman Empire still stood then), and it was officially discovered in 1870. Six years later, it was calculated that the parent of the meteor shower was none other than the famed comet Halley, and people really started taking notice. As a comet travels along its orbit, it leaves a fine debris field in its wake. The Earth, happy and oblivious along its orbit, eventually crosses into the field of dust and sand-sized particles that were once part of Halley, and the result is a meteor shower: specks of dust slamming into the Earth’s atmosphere at tens of thousands of miles per hour. As they are vaporized, energy is released, producing those famed streaks of light in the night sky. (Later in Earth’s orbit, it will encounter Halley’s debris field again: the Orionids in October.)

So how can you see the phantom trail of Halley’s comet? The most exciting way is to wake a couple of hours before dawn, lay out a blanket in some dark area, and look up. Once your eyes adjust, you should be able to catch about 10 meteors per hour. If that’s too much work for you—it’s hot out there, and mosquitoes, you know?—Slooh will be broadcasting the meteor shower live, with running commentary by astronomers.

Bombshell, Victoria’s Secret’s Bestselling Fragrance, Also Happens to Repel Mosquitoes

Dids, Pexels
Dids, Pexels

People love Bombshell, the best-selling fragrance at Victoria’s Secret, for its summery blend of fruity and floral notes. Not everyone is a huge fan, though: As Quartz reports, the perfume is surprisingly good at warding off mosquitoes. In fact, it’s almost as effective as DEET insect repellent, according to the results of a 2014 experiment by researchers at New Mexico State University.

Researchers took 10 products that are commercially available and tested their ability to repel two different species of mosquitoes: the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), both of which are known to transmit diseases like dengue fever, chikungunya, and yellow fever. In doing so, volunteers subjected their own flesh to the test by placing their hands on either side of a Y-shaped tube containing the blood-sucking critters. One hand was covered in a synthetic rubber glove, while the other hand was sprayed with one of the products but otherwise left bare. Researchers recorded which tunnel the mosquitoes flew to, and how long they avoided the other end.

Three of the products contained DEET, while four products didn’t. In addition, there were two fragrances (including Bombshell) and one vitamin B1 skin patch. The DEET products were the most effective, but Bombshell proved to be nearly as good, keeping mosquitoes at bay for roughly two hours.

“There was some previous literature that said fruity, floral scents attracted mosquitoes, and to not wear those,” Stacy Rodriquez, one of the study’s authors, said in a statement. “It was interesting to see that the mosquitoes weren’t actually attracted to the person that was wearing the Victoria’s Secret perfume—they were repelled by it.”

This isn’t the first time a perfume has had an unintended effect on the natural world. It turns out that tigers are obsessed with Calvin Klein’s Obsession for Men cologne, partly because it contains a synthetic version of civetone, a pheromone that's secreted by glands located near a civet’s anus. This substance was once used to create musky fragrances, but nowadays the scent is mostly reproduced in a lab. Still, the fake stuff must be pretty convincing, because big cats go crazy when they catch a whiff of it.

[h/t Quartz]

Mystery Solved: Scientists Have Figured Out Why Some Squirrels Are Black

Rena-Marie/iStock via Getty Images
Rena-Marie/iStock via Getty Images

It can be something of a surprise to see an animal sporting a fresh coat of paint. Blue lobsters occasionally surface after being caught in traps. A pink dolphin was spotted in Louisiana in 2007 (and several times since). In the Chinese province of Shaanxi, a cute brown and white panda greets zoo visitors.

Another anomalous animal has joined their ranks. Black squirrels have been spotted in both the United States and the UK, and now scientists believe they know why.

Like many animals with unusual color schemes, black squirrels are the result of a genetic detour. Researchers at Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge University, and the Virginia Museum of Natural History collaborated on a project that tested squirrel DNA. Their findings, which were published in BMC Evolutionary Biology, demonstrated that the black squirrel is the product of interspecies breeding between the common gray squirrel and the fox squirrel. The black squirrel is actually a gray squirrel with a faulty pigment gene carried over from the fox squirrel that turns their fur a darker shade. (Some fox squirrels, which are usually reddish-brown, are also black.)

A black squirrel is pictured
sanches12/iStock via Getty Images

Scientists theorize a black fox squirrel may have joined in on a mating chase involving gray squirrels and got busy with a female. The black fur may offer benefits in colder regions, with squirrels able to absorb and retain more heat, giving them a slight evolutionary edge.

In North America, black squirrels are uncommon, with one estimate putting them at a rate of one in every 10,000 squirrels. In 1961, students at Kent State University in Ohio released 10 black squirrels that had been captured by Canadian wildlife authorities. The squirrels now populate the campus and have become the school’s unofficial mascot. Their coloring might help them hide from predators, which might come in handy at Kent State: The campus is also home to hawks.

[h/t The Guardian]

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER