15 Facts About Island of the Blue Dolphins


American author Scott O'Dell penned 26 children's novels over the course of his career, but his most popular by far is Island of the Blue Dolphins. The haunting—and at times harrowing—story followed the adventures of a Native American girl forced to survive alone on a forgotten island, where she tamed wild dogs and defied the odds. But as beloved as this book is, few know the incredible true story that lies just beneath O'Dell's spare but thoughtful prose.


O'Dell got his start in the burgeoning film industry. Before serving in the U.S. Air Force in World War II, he snagged jobs as a cameraman and a technical director, later transitioning to work at the Los Angeles Mirror as a book columnist, then the Los Angeles Daily News as a book editor. Though he'd begun writing articles and novels for adults in his mid-thirties, it wasn't until he was in his sixties that O'Dell found his calling as a children's novelist. By 1972, his incredible works—including Island of the Blue Dolphins, The Black Pearl and Sing Down the Moon—earned him the Hans Christian Andersen Award, the greatest honor offered to children's book creators.


Though published in 1960, the novel's inspiration came from over 100 years before. Off the coast of California lies San Nicolas Island, where the Nicoleño tribe once thrived. In 1814, a brutal slaughter at the hands of Native Alaskan otter hunters critically hurt the tribe's numbers. By 1835, missionaries intervened, urging the last of the Nicoleño to leave their little island in favor of the more hospitable mainland. But a young woman—who would come to be called Juana Maria—literally missed the boat. She spent 18 years on the island all by herself, and would become remembered as the Lone Woman of San Nicolas Island. O'Dell's version of this story left out the missionaries, but maintained the slaughter by trappers and the tribe's abandonment of the island.


No one knows the Lone Woman of San Nicolas Island's real name. "Juana Maria" is what the missionaries christened her when she came to their mission in her 40s. With her real name lost, O'Dell opted to call her fictional doppelgänger Karana.


Why didn't Juana Maria join her people on the boats? The most popular theory is that she did, but as the ship took to the sea, she realized a child (usually her child) had been left behind. So, she dramatically dove overboard to return to and care for it. But Navy archaeologist Steven Schwartz believes this is not the best explanation, as much as the best story. "The story of her jumping overboard does not show up until the 1880s (nearly 50 years after the event)," he says. "By then the Victorian era is well underway, and literature takes on a flowery, even romantic flavor."

Still, the story appealed to O'Dell. In Island of the Blue Dolphins, Karana follows in the mythic footsteps (or swim strokes) of Juana Maria, diving overboard and returning to shore once she realizes her little brother has missed the boat.


Juana Maria is believed to have been around 24 when she was stranded on San Nicolas Island. (Her exact age cannot be pinned down, because her birth date is unknown.) To raise the stakes and make the story more appealing to the children it was aimed to entertain, O'Dell made the heroine of his novel a tenacious 12-year-old girl.


Because of how the tribe was killed off and then dispersed into California, the Nicoleño culture has been largely lost. So the 60-something O'Dell looked to the legends and customs of other tribes of the Channel Islands, then carefully described tools like the pitch-lined baskets used to haul water. But as Slate noted in a book review of the novel's 2016 Complete Reader's Edition, "Other details, like the islanders’ use of two names—a public one for strangers and a true one for trusted intimates—he simply made up."


Edited by associate professor of English at the University of South Carolina Sara L. Schwebel, this version of O'Dell's novel boasts two previously excised chapters that had never before been published, as well as "a critical introduction and essays that offer new background on the archaeological, legal, and colonial histories of Native peoples in California." These elements aim to add a greater context and discussion tools for modern readers.


The film directed by James B. Clark opened on July 3, 1964, to faint praise. The New York Times's Howard Thompson described it as "a bit thin and sugary," adding, "(Island of the Blue Dolphins) is about as unstartling and uneventful as can be—and as pretty to look at." Nonetheless, ingénue Celia Kaye won a Golden Globe for Most Promising Newcomer (Female), while the film was honored with Boxoffice Magazine's Best Picture of the Month for the Whole Family award.


Zia follows the titular heroine, the 14-year-old niece of Karana, as she sets forth on a sea-faring quest to find her long-lost aunt. After many trials and tribulations, Zia does reunite with Karana, but their joy is short-lived. Upon its release in 1976, Publisher's Weekly called the children's novel "Bound to be among the outstanding books of the year."


O'Dell created the character of Zia altogether. But in the book, the girl discovers proof that Karana may still live in that she finds footprints in the sand, the remnants of a cooking fire, and a small hut. In real life, American mountain man/explorer/otter hunter George Nidever led three expeditions to San Nicholas, originally for sea gull eggs. On the first expedition he found a footprint that had been made a long time prior alongside more recent evidence of seal blubber dehydrating. On a second trip they found more evidence of recent occupation, and on the third trip he found the Lone Woman. Another true detail cherry-picked for Zia was that no one could really communicate with Juana Maria, her language having transformed into something unique and unfamiliar to the mainlanders. Plus, just as he did in real life, "Captain Nidever" brings the lost tribeswoman to the mainland, and then to the Santa Barbara Mission.


Today San Nicolas is predominantly a naval air station, where aforementioned archaeologist Schwartz has dedicatedly been searching for evidence of the Lone Woman's life. He scoured its beaches and sandstone cliffs, drilling exploratory holes, and consulting ancient maps in hopes of uncovering artifacts. Finally in 2012, he found a cave that measures 75 feet long and 10 feet high, and demanded 40,000 buckets-worth of sand to unearth. He's "90 percent sure" this is where Juana Maria would have spent much of her time.


Another team found redwood boxes containing 200 stone blades, harpoon points, and bone fishhooks. But when the Navy announced plans to relocate these artifacts from San Nicolas to the Naval Air Weapons Station in China Lake, California, archaeologists and Native American leaders banded together, creating a petition to stop them. The main concern is the move could damage these precious artifacts between the risks of travel and a drier climate that could make them brittle. But the Navy's response was essentially that the objects would receive the highest care and consideration.


In Zia, Karana peacefully passes away shortly after her niece finds her. In real life, Maria was welcomed into the Santa Barbara mission, where she entertained residents, singing and dancing. But just seven weeks into her stay, Maria passed away. She was buried at the mission's cemetery, within the Nidever family's plot. In 1928, the Daughters of the American Revolution remembered her with a commemorative plate placed on her grave.


In 1982—seven years before his passing—the author created his own literary honor: the Scott O'Dell Award for Historical Fiction. Awarded to children's and young adult books with a focus on history, the award was O'Dell's way of encouraging other writers to create Island of the Blue Dolphin books of their own. His hope was that such engaging explorations would engage American children in history. Winners have included Jennifer L. Holm's Depression era-set Full of Beans, Jack Gantos' autobiographical Dead End in Norvelt, and Rita Williams-Garcia's 1968 Oakland-set One Crazy Summer.


The year of its release, O'Dell's novel was celebrated with the Newbery Medal, awarded to "the most distinguished contribution to American literature for children." Since then, Island of the Blue Dolphins has ended up on countless reading lists for school assignments. Even as the conversation evolves around what it means to have a white man reconstruct—or flat-out re-imagine—the life and culture of a lost Native American tribe, the book holds a hallowed place in children's historical fiction and in the hearts of many writers and readers. Plus Island of the Blue Dolphins boasts more than 6.5 million copies in print, and is roundly counted as one of the most popular novels of the 20th century.

9 Other Things That Happened on July 4


Of course we know that July 4 is Independence Day in the U.S. But lots of other things have happened on that date as well. Here are just a few of them:

1. Three former presidents died.

On July 4, 1826, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson—America's second and third presidents, respectively—both passed away. The two politicians had a love-hate relationship, and Adams's last words were supposedly, "Thomas Jefferson survives." (He didn't know that Jefferson had passed away a few hours earlier.) Exactly five years later, on July 4, 1831, fifth U.S. President James Monroe died in New York City.

2. Henry David Thoreau moved to Walden Pond.

On July 4, 1845, Henry David Thoreau began his two-year living experiment at Walden Pond, near Concord, Massachusetts.

3. Alice Liddell first heard the story of Alice in Wonderland.

On July 4, 1862, little Alice Liddell listened to a story told by Lewis Carroll during a boat trip on the Thames ... it would later become, of course, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. It was published exactly three years later—on July 4, 1865.

4. Two famous advice columnists were born.

On July 4, 1918, twin sisters Esther Pauline and Pauline Esther Friedman were born. Today they're better known as Ann Landers and Dear Abby.

5. George Steinbrenner came into the world.

On July 4, 1930, future Yankees owner George Steinbrenner was born (and presumably fired the doctor immediately).

6. Lou Gehrig delivered his retirement speech.

On July 4, 1939, Lou Gehrig gave his famous retirement speech at Yankee Stadium after being diagnosed with ALS. He tells the crowd that he considers himself "the luckiest man on the face of the earth."

7. The Zodiac Killer killed for the first time. (As far as we know.)

On July 4, 1968, the Zodiac Killer murdered his first victims (that we know of) at Lake Herman Road in Benicia, California.

8. Koko was born.

On July 4, 1971, Koko, the sign-language gorilla, was born.

9. Bob Ross passed away.

On July 4, 1995, Bob Ross died, and all over the world, Happy Little Trees were a little less happy.

This list first ran in 2008 and was updated for 2019.

12 Facts About Diabetes Mellitus


Thirty million Americans—about 9 percent of the country's population—are living with diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes. This chronic condition is characterized by sustained high blood sugar levels. In many patients, symptoms can be managed with insulin injections and lifestyle changes, but in others, the complications can be deadly. Here's what you need to know about diabetes mellitus.

1. There are three types of diabetes.

In healthy people, the pancreas produces enough of the hormone insulin to metabolize sugars into glucose and move the glucose into cells, where it's used for energy.

But people with type 2 diabetes—the most common form of the disease, accounting for about 95 percent of cases—either can't produce enough insulin to transport the sugars, or their cells have become insulin-resistant. The result is a buildup of glucose in the blood (a.k.a. high blood sugar or hyperglycemia). Type 2 diabetes typically develops in adults.

Type 1 diabetes, also known as juvenile diabetes, makes up the remaining 5 percent of chronic cases and most often develops in children and young adults. With this condition, the initial problem isn’t blood sugar levels, but insulin production: The pancreas can’t make enough insulin to process even normal amounts of glucose. The sugar builds up as a result, leading to dangerous concentrations in the bloodstream.

The third form, gestational diabetes, only afflicts pregnant people who weren’t diabetic before their pregnancy. The mother's blood glucose levels usually spike around the 24th week of pregnancy, but with a healthy diet, exercise, and insulin shots in some cases, diabetes symptoms usually can be managed. Blood sugar levels tend to return to normal in patients following their pregnancies.

2. The mellitus in diabetes mellitus means "honey sweet."

Around 3000 years ago, ancient Egyptians described a condition with diabetes-like symptoms, though it wasn't called diabetes yet. It took a few hundred years before the Greek physician Araetus of Cappodocia came up with the name diabetes based on the Greek word for "passing through" (as in passing a lot of urine, a common diabetes symptom). English doctor Thomas Willis tacked on the word mellitus, meaning "honey sweet," in 1675, building on previous physicians' observations that diabetic patients had sweet urine. Finally, in 1776, another English physician named Matthew Dobson confirmed that both the blood and urine of diabetes patients were made sweeter by high levels of glucose in their blood.

3. The cause of one type of diabetes is well understood; the other, not so much.

A person’s lifestyle is a key predictor of developing type 2 diabetes. Factors like being overweight or obese, consuming a high-calorie diet, smoking, and seldom exercising contribute to the risk. Foods and drinks that are high in sugar—soda, candy, ice cream, dessert— may contribute to hyperglycemia, but any food that’s high in calories, even if it's not sweet, can raise blood sugar levels.

In contrast to these well-established factors, medical experts aren’t entirely sure what causes type 1 diabetes. We do know that type 1 is an autoimmune disease that develops when the body attacks and damages insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Some scientists think that environmental factors, like viruses, may trigger this immune response.

4. Family history also plays a role in diabetes risk.

If a parent or sibling has type 2 diabetes, you are predisposed to developing pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle habits explain some of these incidences, since family members may share similar diets and exercise habits. Genetics also play a role, but just because one close relative has diabetes does not mean you're destined to. Research conducted on identical twins, which share identical genes, showed that the pairs have discordant risk. Among twins in which one has type 1 diabetes, the other has only a 50 percent chance of developing it; for type 2, the risk for the second twin is 75 percent at most.

5. Racial minorities are at a higher risk for developing diabetes.

Many racial minority groups in the U.S. have a higher chance of developing type 2 diabetes. Black Americans, Latino Americans, Native Americans, Pacific Islanders, and some groups of Asian Americans are more likely to have pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes than white Americans. This can be partly explained by the fact that some of these groups also have higher rates of obesity, which is one of the primary risk factors of type 2 diabetes. Socioeconomics may also play a role: One study shows that people with diabetes living in poverty are less likely to visit diabetes clinics and receive proper testing than their middle-income counterparts. According to another study, diabetic people without health insurance have higher blood sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol rates than insured diabetics. Genetics, on the other hand, don’t appear to contribute to these trends.

6. Diabetes is one of the world's deadliest diseases.

With proper management, people with diabetes can live long, comfortable lives. But if the disease isn’t treated, it can have dire consequences. Diabetics make up the majority of people who develop chronic kidney disease, have adult-onset blindness, and need lower-limb amputations. In the most serious cases, diabetes leads to death. The condition is one of the deadliest diseases in the world, killing more people than breast cancer and AIDS combined.

7. Millions of Americans are pre-diabetic.

According to the CDC, 84 million adults living in the U.S. are pre-diabetic: Their blood sugar is higher than what’s considered safe, but hasn't yet reached diabetic level. In pre-diabetic patients, blood glucose levels after eight hours of fasting fall between 100 and 125 milligrams per deciliter, and diabetic levels are anything above that. People with pre-diabetes are not just at a greater risk for type 2 diabetes, but also for heart disease and stroke. Fortunately, people who are diagnosed with pre-diabetes can take steps to eat a healthier diet, increase physical activity, and test their blood glucose level several times a day to control the condition. In some cases, doctors will prescribe drugs like metformin that make the body more receptive to the insulin it produces.

8. After climbing for decades, rates of diabetes incidence are declining.

In the U.S., the rate of new diagnoses skyrocketed 382 percent between 1988 and 2014. Globally, 108 million people had diabetes in 1980, but by 2014 that number was 422 million.

But thanks to nationwide education and prevention efforts, the trend has reversed in the U.S., according to the CDC. Since peaking in 2009, the number of new diabetes cases in America has dropped by 35 percent. In that same timeframe, the number of people living with diagnosed diabetes in the U.S. has plateaued, suggesting people with the condition are living longer.

9. The first successful treatment for type 1 diabetes occurred in 1922.

Prior to the 20th century, type 1 diabetes was usually fatal. Diabetic ketoacidosis—a toxic buildup of chemicals called ketones, which arise when the body can no longer use glucose and instead breaks down other tissues for energy—killed most patients within a year or two of diagnosis. In searching for way to save children with juvenile (type 1) diabetes, Canadian physician Frederick Banting and medical student Charles Best built on the work of earlier researchers, who had demonstrated that removing the pancreas from a dog immediately caused diabetes symptoms in the animal. Banting and Best extracted insulin from dog pancreases in University of Toronto professor J.J.R. Macleod's lab. After injecting the insulin back into dogs whose pancreases had been removed, they realized the hormone regulated blood sugar levels. On January 11, 1922, they administered insulin to a human patient, and further refined the extract to reduce side effects. In 1923, Banting and Macleod received the Nobel Prize in Medicine for their work.

10. A pioneering physicist discovered the difference between type and and type 1 diabetes.

In the 1950s, physicist Rosalyn Yalow and her research partner Solomon Berson developed a method for measuring minute amounts of substances in blood. Inspired by Yalow's husband's struggle with diabetes, Yalow focused her research on insulin. Their "radioimmunoassay" technology revealed that some diabetes patients were still able to produce their own insulin, leading them to create two separate categories for the disease: “insulin-dependent” (type 1) and “non-insulin-dependent” (type 2). Prior to that discovery in 1959, there was no distinction between the two types. In 1977, Yalow won the 1977 Nobel Prize in Medicine for the radioimmunoassay, one of only 12 female Nobel laureates in medicine.

11. Making one insulin dose once required tons of pig parts.

Insulin is relatively easy to make today. Most of what's used in injections comes from a special non-disease-producing laboratory strain of E. coli bacteria that's been genetically modified to produce insulin, but that wasn't always the case. Until about 40 years ago, 2 tons of pig pancreases were required to produce just 8 ounces of pure insulin. The pig parts were typically recycled from pork farms.

12. A quarter of diabetes patients don’t know they have it.

The symptoms of type 2 diabetes can develop for years before patients think to ask their doctor about them. These include frequent urination, unexplained thirst, numbness in the extremities, dry skin, blurry vision, fatigue, and sores that are slow to heal—signs that may not be a cause for concern on their own, but together can indicate a more serious problem. Patients with type 1 diabetes may also experience nausea, vomiting, and stomach pain.

While serious, the symptoms of diabetes are sometimes easy to overlook. That’s why 25 percent of people with the illness, 7.2 million in the U.S., are undiagnosed. And that number doesn’t even cover the majority of people with pre-diabetes who aren’t aware they’re on their way to becoming diabetic.