15 Facts About Kate Chopin's The Awakening

L Eaton, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0
L Eaton, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0

Kate Chopin's groundbreaking novel The Awakening is revered for its realism and regularly included in academic reading lists. Set in the late 19th century, its story follows Edna Pontellier, a wife and mother whose flirtation with a young bachelor leads her to desire more from life. This premise elicited widespread scorn when the book was published in 1899—and its author never could have predicted its rocky road to critical acclaim.

1. THE AWAKENING WAS CHOPIN'S SECOND NOVEL.

Her first novel At Fault, privately published in 1890, centered on a Creole widow named Thérèse Lafirme, who unexpectedly finds love with a dashing divorcé. From there, Chopin began writing for well-known magazines, and published more than 100 short stories and essays in Atlantic Monthly, Vogue, The Century Magazine, and The Youth's Companion. Her next two books, both short story collections, were Bayou Folk (published in 1894) and A Night in Acadie (1897). The Awakening, her second novel, was published on April 22, 1899.

2. CHOPIN WAS INSPIRED BY THE WRITING OF GUY DE MAUPASSANT.

The French short story writer is known for his masterpieces of realism. One of his most famous stories, "Boule de Suif," follows the journey of a prostitute during the Franco-Prussian War. Of Maupassant's influence on her work, Chopin said:

"I read his stories and marveled at them. Here was life, not fiction; for where were the plots, the old-fashioned mechanism and stage-trapping that in a vague, unthinkable way I had fancied were essential to the art of story-making. Here was a man who had escaped from tradition and authority, who had entered into himself and looked out upon life through his own being and with his own eyes, and who, in a direct and simple way, told us what he saw."

3. CHOPIN SET MANY OF HER STORIES IN LOUISIANA, INCLUDING THE AWAKENING.

She set At Fault and portions of The Awakening in New Orleans, where Chopin spent many years as a young wife and mother. Chopin reflected the Creole heritage of the area in her characters. Many of her short stories were set in the central Louisiana town of Natchitoches, where she later resided.

4. THE AWAKENING IS CONSIDERED ONE OF THE FIRST FEMINIST WORKS IN AMERICAN LITERATURE.

Chopin's novel arrived during the feminist movement's first wave, when women fought for the right to vote and for increased autonomy. The Awakening's heroine, Edna Pontellier, challenged society's expectations for women by daring to explore romance outside her marriage and gratification outside of motherhood.

5. CHOPIN STRUGGLED AFTER THE DEATH OF HER HUSBAND.

When The Awakening was published, she was a 49-year-old widow who had raised six children. Her husband, Oscar Chopin, had died of malaria in 1882, when Kate was 32. According to biographer Emily Toth, "For a while, the widow Kate ran his business and flirted outrageously with local men." Two years later, she sold the business (a general store and plantation) and moved to St. Louis to be closer to her mother. There, Chopin's obstetrician and family friend, Dr. Frederick Kolbenheyer, suggested writing might pull her out of a growing depression. She found a new passion and purpose.

6. CHOPIN BECAME A RESPECTED WRITER OF REGIONAL STORIES.

Kate Chopin House, Nachitoches, Louisiana
The Kate Chopin House in Nachitoches Parish, Louisiana, circa 1933. The house burned down in 2008.
Library of Congress // Public Domain

Ahead of The Awakening's debut, Chopin was at the height of her popularity. Critics praised both of her short story collections, and heralded A Night in Acadie as "a string of little jewels." She was celebrated for her observations and ability to capture "local color." Posthumously, her works would continue to be revered as grand examples of American realism at the turn of the century. This literary movement depicted the everyday lives of ordinary, contemporary people with keen and humane observations.

7. THE AWAKENING EARNED NEGATIVE REVIEWS ...

Chopin's story of self-discovery and suicide boldly challenged the gender roles of Victorian society. Critics denounced the novel as "morbid," "feeble," and "vulgar." "Miss Kate Chopin is another clever woman, but she has put her cleverness to a very bad use in writing The Awakening," sniffed an anonymous reviewer in the Providence Sunday Journal. "The purport of the story can hardly be described in language fit for publication. We are fain to believe that Miss Chopin did not herself realize what she was doing when she wrote it."

The Los Angeles Sunday Times scolded, "It is rather difficult to decide whether Mrs. Kate Chopin, the author of The Awakening, tried in that novel merely to make an intimate, analytical study of the character of a selfish, capricious woman, or whether she wanted to preach the doctrine of the right of the individual to have what he wants, no matter whether or not it may be good for him."

Perhaps harshest of all was Public Opinion's review, which celebrated Edna's eventual drowning. "If the author had secured our sympathy for this unpleasant person it would not have been a small victory, but we are well satisfied when Mrs. Pontellier deliberately swims out to her death in the waters of the gulf," the critic wrote.

8. ... BUT EVEN CRITICS WHO WERE UNNERVED BY CHOPIN'S PLOT PRAISED HER CRAFT.

Frances Porcher, reviewing for The Mirror, lamented that Chopin's novel ultimately left her feeling "sick of human nature," but wrote, "there is no fault to find with the telling of the story; there are no blemishes in its art."

L. Deyo of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch acknowledged The Awakening's subversive elements, but argued that its artistry superseded its shock value. "The theme is difficult, but it is handled with a cunning craft," Deyo wrote. "The work is more than unusual. It is unique. The integrity of its art is that of well-knit individuality at one with itself, with nothing superfluous to weaken the impression of a perfect whole."

9. THE OUTCRY WOUNDED CHOPIN—AND HER CAREER.

Despite all the praise her short stories had earned, the critical response to The Awakening crushed Chopin's spirits. The St. Louis Fine Arts Club, which she sought to join, barred her admission because of the scandal. She wrote more short stories but struggled to find publishers. Toth argues that Chopin's challenge to society's patriarchal status quo in The Awakening "went too far: Edna's sensuality was too much for the male gatekeepers."

10. THE AWAKENING WAS CHOPIN'S LAST NOVEL.

Five years after its publication, the St. Louis-born author died after suffering a cerebral hemorrhage while she was visiting the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair.

11. FOR DECADES, IT SEEMED THAT THE AWAKENING WOULD BE FORGOTTEN.

Following her death, critics and readers remembered her most often for her short stories. Her legacy remained that of a "local colorist"; the regional elements of her short stories were valued more highly than The Awakening's theme of female empowerment.

12. APPRECIATION FOR THE AWAKENING GREW IN THE MID-20TH CENTURY.

By the early 1960s, second-wave feminism was changing the way Americans viewed women and society at large. In 1969, Per Seyersted, a scholar of American literature, secured Chopin's literary legacy by publishing the first edition of her collected works. He also wrote Kate Chopin: A Critical Biography. The former allowed generations of readers to discover her writing, while the latter reconsidered The Awakening, and celebrated "its courageous realism." Both books kicked off a reevaluation of Chopin and her once-notorious novel.

13. THE AWAKENING HAS BEEN BANNED—BUT ONLY ONCE.

Though book jackets like to claim that it's been banned, historians have found of only one verified instance when The Awakening was pulled from library shelves. A popular story claims that a library in Chopin's hometown of St. Louis removed the novel. But in all her research, Toth could not verify this. However, The New York Times reported The Awakening was banned from a public library in Evanston, Illinois in 1902. And its placement was challenged at Georgia's Oconee County Library in 2010. That incident wasn't related to the controversial content of the novel, but to its cover showing a painting of a semi-nude woman, which upset a library patron.

14. THE AWAKENING IS CONSIDERED A CLASSIC.

Contemporary critics and academics recognize that Chopin was ahead of her time by almost 100 years. In Awakenings: The Story of the Kate Chopin Revival, editor and Chopin authority Bernard Koloski summarized the incredible journey of The Awakening's rise to the American literature canon:

"No other American book was so maligned, neglected for so long, and then embraced so quickly and with such enthusiasm as Kate Chopin's 1899 novel The Awakening. And none has been so thoroughly redeemed as The Awakening. Thought vulgar, morbid, and disturbing in Chopin's time, it has for the past quarter of a century been seen as sensitive, passionate, and inspiring. Forgotten for two generations, it is today known by countless people in dozens of countries, and Kate Chopin has become among the most widely read of classic American authors."

15. BECAUSE OF THE AWAKENING, CHOPIN'S WORK CAN BE READ AROUND THE WORLD.

Her writings have been translated into many other languages, including, according to the Kate Chopin International Society, "Albanian, Arabic, Chinese, Czech, Danish, Dutch, French, Galician, German, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Malayalam, Polish, Portuguese, Serbian, Spanish, Swedish, Turkish, and Vietnamese."

15 Fascinating Facts About Beatrix Potter

Getty Images
Getty Images

Even today, more than 75 years after her death on December 22, 1943, celebrated children’s author Beatrix Potter's beautifully illustrated tales—featuring animals and landscapes inspired by her beloved home in England’s Lake District—are still hugely popular. Below are 15 fascinating facts about The Tale of Peter Rabbit author.

1. Beatrix wasn't Potter's real first name.

Potter was born in London on July 28, 1866 and was actually christened Helen after her mother, but was known by her more unusual middle name: Beatrix.

2. The Tale of Peter Rabbit was inspired by a letter.

The first edition of The Tale of Peter Rabbit.
Aleph-bet books via Wikimedia // Public Domain

Potter’s most famous book, The Tale of Peter Rabbit , was inspired by an illustrated letter Potter wrote to Noel, the son of her former governess, Annie, in 1893. She later asked to borrow the letter back and copied the pictures and story, which she then adapted to create the much-loved tale.

3. Peter Rabbit and her friends were partly based on Beatrix Potter's own pets.

Peter was modeled on Potter’s own pet rabbit, Peter Piper—a cherished bunny who Potter frequently sketched and took for walks on a leash. Potter's first pet rabbit, Benjamin Bouncer, was the inspiration for Benjamin Bunny, Peter's cousin in her books. Potter loved sketching Benjamin, too. In 1890, after a publisher purchased some of her sketchers of Benjamin, she decided to reward him with some hemp seeds. "The consequence being that when I wanted to draw him next morning he was intoxicated and wholly unmanageable," she later wrote in her diary.

4. Potter’s house was essentially a menagerie.


Riversdale Estate, Flickr // Public Domain

Potter kept a whole host of pets in her schoolroom at home—rabbits, hedgehogs, frogs, and mice. She would capture wild mice and let them run loose. When she needed to recapture them she would shake a handkerchief until the wild mice would emerge to fight the imagined foe and promptly be scooped up and caged. When her brother Bertram went off to boarding school he left a pair of long-eared pet bats behind. The animals proved difficult to care for so Potter set one free, but the other, a rarer specimen, she dispatched with chloroform then set about stuffing for her collection.

5. Peter Rabbit wasn’t an immediate success.

Potter self-published the Tale of Peter Rabbit in 1901, funding the print run of 250 herself after being turned down by several commercial publishers. In 1902 the book was republished by Frederick Warne & Co after Potter agreed to redo her black-and-white illustrations in color. By the end of its first year in print, it was in so much demand it had to be reprinted six times.

6. Beatrix Potter understood the power of merchandising.

In 1903 Potter, recognizing the merchandising opportunities offered by her success, made her own Peter Rabbit doll, which she registered at the Patent Office. A Peter Rabbit board game and wallpaper were also produced in her lifetime.

7. Potter was a naturalist at a time when most women weren’t.

Potter was fascinated by nature and was constantly recording the world around her in her drawings. Potter was especially interested in fungi and became an accomplished scientific illustrator, going on to write a paper , “On the Germination of the Spores of Agaricineae, ” proposing her own theory for how fungi spores reproduced. The paper was presented on Potter’s behalf by the Assistant Director of Kew Gardens at a meeting of the Linnean Society on April 1, 1897, which Potter was unable to attend because at that time women were not allowed at meetings of the all-male Linnean Society—even if their work was deemed good enough to be presented.

8. Potter sometimes wrote in secret code.

Between 1881 and 1897 Potter kept a journal in which she jotted down her private thoughts in a secret code . This code was so fiendishly difficult it was not cracked and translated until 1958.

9. Potter was reportedly a disappointment to her mom.


Wikimedia // Public Domain

Despite her huge success, Potter was something of a disappointment to her mother, who had wanted a daughter to accompany her on social calls and make an advantageous marriage. In 1905 Potter accepted the marriage proposal of her publisher Norman Warne. However, her parents were very against the match as they did not consider him good enough for their daughter, and refused to allow the engagement to be made public. Unfortunately, Warne died of leukemia just a few weeks after the engagement. Potter did eventually marry, at age 47, to a solicitor and kindred spirit, William Heelis.

10. Potter wrote much more than you. (Probably.)

Potter was a prolific writer , producing between two and three stories every year, ultimately writing 28 books in total, including The Tale of Squirrel Nutkin , The Tale of Mrs Tiggy Winkle , and The Tale of Mr. Jeremy Fisher . Potter’s stories have been translated into 35 different languages and sold over 100 million copies combined.

11. Potter asked that one of her books not be published in England.

In 1926 Potter published a longer work, The Fairy Caravan . It was at first only published in America because Potter felt it was too autobiographical to be published in England during her lifetime. (She also told her English publishers that it wasn’t as good as her other work and felt it wouldn’t be well-received). Nine years after her death in 1943, the book was finally released in the UK.

12. Potter's later books had to be cobbled together from early drawings.

As her eyesight diminished it became harder and harder for Potter to produce the beautiful drawings that characterized her work. As a result many of her later books were pieced together from earlier drawings in her vast collection of sketchbooks. The Tale of Little Pig Robinson was Potter’s last picture book, published in 1930.

13. A lost work of potter's was published in 2016.

A lost Potter story , The Tale of Kitty-in-Boots , was rediscovered in 2013 and published in summer 2016. Publisher Jo Hanks found references to the story in an out-of-print biography of Potter and so went searching through the writer’s archive at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. Hanks discovered a sketch of the kitty in question, plus a rough layout of the unedited manuscript. The story will be published with supplementary illustrations by Quentin Blake.

14. Potter was an accomplished sheep farmer.

Potter was an award-winning sheep farmer and in 1943 was the first woman elected President of the Herdwick Sheep Breeders’ Association.

15. You can visit Hill Top, Potter's home.


Strobilomyces, Wikimedia // CC BY-SA 3.0 

When Potter died in 1943 at the age of 77, she left 14 farms and 4000 acres of land in the Lake District to Britain’s National Trust, ensuring the beloved landscape that inspired her work would be preserved. The Trust opened her house, Hill Top, which she bought in 1905, to the public in 1946.

Mental Floss is partnering with the Paper & Packaging – How Life Unfolds® “15 Pages A Day” reading initiative to make sure that everyone has the opportunity (and time) to take part in The Mental Floss Book Club. It’s easy! Take the pledge at howlifeunfolds.com/15pages.

This article has been updated for 2019.

No, Ernest Hemingway Didn’t Write That Six-Word ‘Baby Shoes’ Story

Ernest Hemingway and actor Gary Cooper (right) leave a cinema on the Rue Royale in Paris, France in 1956.
Ernest Hemingway and actor Gary Cooper (right) leave a cinema on the Rue Royale in Paris, France in 1956.
Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Journalist-turned-novelist Ernest Hemingway was known for his clean, restrained writing style. Which makes it conceivable that he's the author of the most famous six-word short story of all time.

The story goes that Hemingway wrote the gut-punching line "For Sale, Baby Shoes, Never Worn" to win a bet against his writer friends. But there's no evidence that such a bet ever took place, and it's likely that one of the best-known works attributed to Hemingway has nothing to do with the author at all.

According to Open Culture, the urban legend sets Hemingway in a hotel (usually the Algonquin, but the location varies) some time in the 1920s. He was allegedly having lunch with a group of writer pals when he bet them he could write a story with a full narrative in just six words. After his friends put their money down, Hemingway jotted down a few words on a napkin and passed it around the table. Though brief, the other writers couldn't deny that "Baby Shoes" was indeed a full story.

Chances are this story actually originated years after Hemingway's 1961 death. It first appeared in print in the 1991 book Get Published! Get Produced!: A Literary Agent’s Tips on How to Sell Your Writing by agent Peter Miller. When recounting the anecdote, Miller wrote that he first heard the tale from an unnamed newspaper syndicator in 1974.

The story spread from there and its original source only became murkier. A retelling of the tale was included in the one-man biographical Hemingway play Papa in 1996, and then in a Reader's Digest essay in 1998. The internet—for which Hemingway's punchy, compact style was a perfect fit—got "Baby Shoes" in front of more eyeballs than ever.

Though it's been cited in articles and books numerous times, no one has ever been able to trace the story back to a first-hand source. As for the true author of "Baby Shoes" if it isn't Hemingway, flash fiction fans may never know his or her identity. It's possible that the line was never meant to be a fictional story in the first place: Real ads that bear striking similarities to the legendary work predate the myth.

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