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 LOIC VENANCE, AFP/Getty Images
LOIC VENANCE, AFP/Getty Images

The Stories Behind 25 Flags You'll See in the Olympic Opening Ceremonies

 LOIC VENANCE, AFP/Getty Images
LOIC VENANCE, AFP/Getty Images

When the opening ceremonies of the 2018 Winter Olympics take place on Friday, February 9 in Pyeongchang, South Korea, athletes and representatives from dozens of countries from all over the world will flaunt their nation's flags as the competition gets under way. But while we're admiring the nearly parade of brightly colored flags, what we won't see is the history and meaning behind each one. Every country's flag is more than just a design—it's a part of its heritage and can tell us something about its history. So get better acquainted with the nations at this year's games by reading the stories behind 25 flags you'll see in the Olympic opening ceremonies.

1. ECUADOR

Flag of Ecuador
iStock

The Ecuadorian flag is made up of three horizontal bands of color: a double-width band of yellow, followed by one blue and then red. The colors themselves all hold significance with yellow representing the abundance of crops and the fertility of the country's land; the blue symbolizes the sea and sky; and the red represents the blood that was spilled for freedom and independence.

2. ERITREA

Flag of Eritrea
iStock

The flag of Eritrea features the colors red, green, and blue to represent (again) the blood spilled for freedom, the country's agriculture, and the bounties of the Red Sea, respectively. The triangle on the flag was inspired by the shape of the country itself, while the 30 leaves of the wreath in the center stand for the number of years the country spent fighting a civil war for independence.

3. KOSOVO

Flag of Kosovo
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In the lead-up to the adoption of the Kosovo flag in 2008, the provisional government held a contest to determine what the new design would look like. The current flag features a yellow silhouette of Kosovo itself on a blue background, with six white stars standing for the country's major ethnic groups: Albanians, Serbians, Turks, Gorani, RAE (Romani, Ashkali, and Kosovo Egyptians), and Bosniaks.

4. MALAYSIA

Flag of Malaysia
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The Malaysian flag features 14 horizontal lines alternating red and white to symbolize the 13 states and federal government of the country. The same is true for the 14 points on the flag's star, which again represent the states and government, but are here unified to form one shape. The star is then partly surrounded by a crescent representing the nation's official religion, Islam. Known as the Jalur Gemilang, the flag was designed by Mohamed Hamzah, a public works department architect in the late 1940s. The design was tweaked and finalized before it was flown for the first time on May 19, 1950, and it has evolved as Malaysia's states have changed over the years.

5. NIGERIA

Flag of Nigeria
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The Nigerian flag is striking in its simplicity. The bold vertical bands tell the story of the country's agricultural wealth (green) and its peace and unity (white). The white also represents the Niger River that runs throughout. The flag was designed in 1959 by a 23-year-old named Pa Michael Taiwo Akinkunmi, who came across the opportunity after reading about it in the newspaper while in college. For his work, he won 100 pounds—or roughly $280.

6. SINGAPORE

Flag of Singapore
Brian Jeffery Beggerly , Flickr // CC BY 2.0

The red and white flag of Singapore makes a bold statement about its ideals. The crescent moon on the flag is meant to represent a young nation growing in power, while the five points on the star prioritize the country's dedication to democracy, peace, progress, justice, and equality. This flag replaced Britain's Union Jack in 1959, and the striking red background is meant to represent brotherhood and unity.

7. ARGENTINA

Flag of Argentina
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The flag of Argentina is famous for its image of the "Sun of May" sitting on band of white, with two bands of blue above and below it. That's the official flag used for military and official government, and for years civilians could only use an alternate version of the flag without the sun. In 1985, however, that was changed, and now anyone, as long as the proper respect is paid, can flaunt the official Argentinian flag.

8. IRELAND

Flag of Ireland
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The three colors on the Irish flag—green, white, and orange—tell the story of the hopes for the unification of its people. Green stands for the native Irish, who were Catholics; the orange is for the later Protestant settlers from Britain who supported King William III (also known as William of Orange); and the white portion in the middle is there to show the hopes for everlasting peace between the two groups. And if those unique color shades catch your interest, the Pantone code for the green is 347 U and the orange is 151 U.

9. MONACO

Flag of Monaco
iStock

The national flag of Monaco is a simple one—two equal, horizontal bands of red and white. This is the flag that citizens use and it's the one that represents the country internationally, such as at the United Nations and Olympics. There is, however, another flag that the country uses on its government buildings and for the prince. This one shows off Monaco's coat of arms on a white background.

10. POLAND

Flag of Poland
włodi, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0

There are two flags associated with Poland—one is the simple red and white design which is the inverse of the flag of Monaco. If history is any guide, this is the flag you'll see the Olympic athletes use during the opening ceremony. And then there's the variant with the country's national emblem—an eagle—displayed on the white portion of the flag. This version is used on Polish government buildings around the globe and on sea vessels.

11. TONGA

Flag of Tonga
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The color red and the image of the cross on the flag of Tonga represent the blood of Christ for a nation that is made up primarily of Christians. And don't expect the look to change anytime soon—it's written into the country's constitution that the design of the flag can never be altered [PDF].

12. REPUBLIC OF KOREA

Flag of South Korea
Valentin Janiaut, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

The flag of South Korea is a busy one. The central symbol is the red (Pantone 186 C) and blue (Pantone 294 C) image of Ying-Yang, representing opposites (positive and negative), with four sets of three bars surrounding it. The bars—or Kwae—are meant to elicit a sense balance or harmony. The white background emphasizes the Korean people as unified and peaceful. Though the flag was originally conceived in the late 19th century, it took until 1997 to establish standardized [PDF].

13. ESTONIA

Flag of Estonia
Heikki Siltala, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

The Estonian flag was originally adopted by the country's provisional government in 1917 and was used until the Soviet occupation of 1940. The design was immediately banned until the nation regained its freedom and was officially adopted again in 1989. The flag's blue, black, white colors all represent something of importance to the Estonian way of life—blue for the seas, lakes, and sky; black for the fertile soil; and white for its snowy landscape.

14. SWITZERLAND

Flag of Switzerland
Fredrik Rubensson, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0

Other than the Vatican, Switzerland is the only sovereign state to have a square flag, rather than the standard rectangle (though some rectangle variants still exist in certain situations). The Red Cross uses the inverse of the Swiss flag, in honor of Henry Dunant, a Swiss businessman whose book A Memory of Solferino helped inspire the idea for the organization.

15. KYRGYZSTAN

Flag of Kyrgyzstan
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The red field that makes up the backbone of the Kyrgyzstan flag is meant to conjure images of "bravery and valor" based on Manas, the country's national hero. Some, however, are still skeptical of such a bold use of red, fearing that it still retains the DNA of the Soviet regime that the country escaped in the early '90s.

16. GEORGIA

Flag of Georgia
young shanahan, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

The modern flag of Georgia is relatively new—it was officially adopted by the nation in 2004. It's similar to flags used intermittently from the 8th through 15th centuries, and the design is fairly simple: four small corner crosses sectioned off by a much larger one in the middle, known as St. George's cross. The overall design is a take on the "Jerusalem cross," which some believe symbolizes the five wounds of Christ.

17. BELARUS

Flag of Belarus
iStock

Like many flags, Belarus's has colors representing past struggles (red, likely for blood) and hope (green, which also has links to the country's forests). The one thing that makes the Belarus flag stand out is the red and white ornamentation at its hoist. This was inspired by designs typically found in Belarusian society.

18. UKRAINE

Flag of Ukraine
iStock

Simple but striking: the Ukrainian flag's colors are meant to symbolize the country's fields of wheat (yellow) and blue skies (blue). After the flag's design was chosen, people would fly the flag with either the blue or yellow at the top, not knowing which way was up or down. It would eventually take an act of parliament in 1918 to cement that the blue goes on top and the yellow at the bottom.

19. GREAT BRITAIN

Picture of the Union Jack
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The flag of Great Britain is a composite of three centuries-old flags from the various lands that now make up the United Kingdom: St. George's Cross of England, St. Patrick's Cross of Ireland, and St. Andrew's Cross of Scotland. The process was a long one, though. The first two flags—England and Scotland—were first combined in 1606, leaving almost 200 more years before the union was complete when Great Britain and Ireland united in 1801. And if you're wondering why Wales isn't represented on the flag—it's because Wales and England unified in 1536, predating the idea of a "Union" flag and, well, kind of leaving them out.

20. GHANA

Flag of Ghana
Elliott Brown, Flickr // CC BY SA 2.0

Like many countries, the Ghana flag features red to remember bloodshed, gold to appreciate its natural resources, and green for vegetation. But the stark, black star in the middle is what will catch anyone's eye. This star represents Africa's united fight against colonialism and was put in by the flag's designer Theodosia Salome Okoh.

21. BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

Flag of Bosnia
iStock

When the country itself couldn't settle on a final flag design, Carlos Westendorp, an outsider and the International High Representative for Bosnia, made the choice himself. The three points of the triangle are meant to stand in for the three principal ethnic groups in the country: Muslims, Croats, and Serbs. The blue background calls to mind the flag of the European Union, while the stars are cut in half at the top and bottom for a reason: when the flag is folded, these would form a new, whole star, suggesting unity.

22. PUERTO RICO

Flag of Puerto Rico
iStock

Though it has less stars and stripes than the similar U.S. flag, Puerto Rico's is no less full of symbolism. The five-pointed star stands for the commonwealth itself, while the three points of the triangle it's housed in are for the Judicial, Legislative, and Executive branches of government. The red stripes—as is the trend—are for the blood spilled throughout its history, while the white stripes stand for the freedoms afforded to individuals. It was adopted as the national flag when Puerto Rico officially became a commonwealth in 1952.

23. GREECE

Flag of Greece
iStock

There are two main thoughts regarding the nine stripes on the Greek flag. For some, each stripe is for a syllable in the phrase Eleftheria H Thanatos or "Freedom or death." Another story, however, sees them as the nine muses found in Greek mythology, with the blue and white representing the sea and clouds. The historical record regarding the flag's origin is spotty, and even the exact shade of blue has changed from light to navy over the decades.

24. JAPAN

Flag of Japan
iStock

There are two names given to Japan's flag: Nisshōki, meaning "sun-mark flag" and Hinomaru or "sun disc." And while the flag has existed in some form since the early 8th century, it wasn't officially adopted by the Japanese government until 1999. One variation of the Japanese flag is the "Rising Sun" flag that was prominent in the late 19th century through World War II. It's still in use today by the Japanese Maritime Defense Force (as well as in certain advertisements) and has become controversial because of its association with the nation's imperialistic past.

25. NEUTRAL ATHLETE FLAG

Olympic flag
Scazon, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

Of course not every nation has their flag flown during the Olympics opening ceremonies. Athletes whose countries do not officially participate in the games—including countries that boycott or are disqualified—compete under the Olympics flag. For the 2018 Winter Olympics, this is the flag that the "Olympic Athletes from Russia" will come out with for the opening. It's a standard white flag with the interlocking Olympic rings emblazoned on it. The logo debuted in 1914 and the rings were meant to represent the five "continents" that participated in the games: Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania.

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NASA / Harrison H. Schmitt
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Space
The 12 Men Who Walked on the Moon
NASA / Harrison H. Schmitt
NASA / Harrison H. Schmitt

If you were born after the Apollo program, and maybe even if you remember those days, it seems almost unbelievable that NASA sent manned missions to the moon 239,000 miles away. People continue to express sadness at the fact that the Apollo lunar missions were so long ago, and that soon there will be no one left alive who actually went to the moon. Today, Alan Bean—the fourth man to walk on the moon and the last surviving member of the Apollo 12 mission—passed away at the age of 86. Which makes it the perfect time to remember—or get to know—the only 12 people who ever walked on a body other than planet Earth.

1. NEIL ALDEN ARMSTRONG

Navy test pilot, engineer, and Korean War veteran Neil Armstrong left the Navy in 1952, but continued in the Naval Reserve. He worked as an experimental test pilot for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) beginning in 1955, which evolved into NASA. Armstrong was assigned as an astronaut in 1962, and flew on the Gemini 8 mission in 1966, where he performed the first successful space docking procedure. Armstrong was selected to be the first man to walk on the moon, as the Apollo 11 mission was planned, for several reasons: he was the commander of the mission, he didn't have a big ego, and the door of the lunar lander was on his side. Although the first steps on the moon are what he will always be known for, Armstrong considered the mission's biggest accomplishment was landing the lunar module. He later said,

Pilots take no special joy in walking: pilots like flying. Pilots generally take pride in a good landing, not in getting out of the vehicle.

Armstrong along with his crew were honored with parades, awards, and acclaim after their return to Earth, but Armstrong always gave credit to the entire NASA team for the Apollo moon missions. He resigned from NASA in 1971 and became a professor of of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Cincinnati for eight years. Armstrong served on the boards of many corporations and foundations, but gradually withdrew from publicity tours and autograph signings. He didn't particularly care for fame.

Neil Armstrong died on August 25, 2012, at age 82. His family released a statement that concluded:

“For those who may ask what they can do to honor Neil, we have a simple request. Honor his example of service, accomplishment and modesty, and the next time you walk outside on a clear night and see the moon smiling down at you, think of Neil Armstrong and give him a wink.”

2. EDWIN "BUZZ" ALDRIN

After graduating third in his class at West Point in 1951 with a degree in science, Buzz Aldrin flew 66 combat missions as an Air Force pilot in the Korean War. Then he earned a PhD at MIT. Aldrin joined NASA as an astronaut in 1963. In 1966 he flew in the Gemini 12 spacecraft on the final Gemini mission.

Aldrin accompanied Neil Armstrong on the first moon landing in the Apollo 11 mission, becoming the second person, and now the first of the living astronauts, to set foot on the moon. Aldrin had taken a home Communion kit with him, and took Communion on the lunar surface, but did not broadcast the fact. Aldrin retired from NASA in 1971 and from the Air Force in 1972. He later suffered from clinical depression and wrote about the experience, but recovered with treatment. Aldrin has co-authored five books about his experiences and the space program, plus two novels. Aldrin, who is now 88 years old, continues to work to promote space exploration.

3. CHARLES "PETE" CONRAD

Pete Conrad was a Princeton graduate and Navy test pilot before entering the astronaut corps in 1962. He flew on the Gemini V mission and was commander of Gemini XI. Conrad was commander of the Apollo 12 mission, launched during a lightning storm which temporarily knocked out the command module's power shortly after liftoff. When Conrad stepped onto the moon, he said,

Whoopee! Man, that may have been a small one for Neil, but that's a long one for me.

Conrad later flew on the Skylab 2 mission as commander with the first crew to board the space station. He retired from NASA and the Navy in 1973, after which he worked for American Television and Communications Company and then for McDonnell Douglas.

Pete Conrad died on July 8, 1999 in a motorcycle accident. He was 69.

4. ALAN L. BEAN

Apollo astronaut Alan Bean was the fourth man to walk on the moon, during the Apollo 12 mission in 1969. He was the lunar module pilot. Bean was also the commander of the Skylab Mission II in 1973, which spent 59 days in flight. Altogether, Bean logged 1,671 hours and 45 minutes in space. Bean is the only artist to have visited another world, so his paintings of the lunar environment have the authenticity of an eyewitness. He retired from the Navy with the rank of Captain, but continued to train astronauts at NASA until 1981, when he retired to devote time to his art.

Bean died on May 26, 2018 at the age of 86.

5. ALAN SHEPARD

Alan Shepard was a bona-fide space pioneer who cemented his spot in history long before the Apollo program. A U.S. Navy test pilot, he was selected as one of the original Mercury astronauts in 1959. Shepard was the first American launched into space aboard the Freedom 7 spacecraft on May 5, 1961. His suborbital flight reached an altitude of 116 miles.

Barred from flight during the Gemini program because of an inner ear problem, Shepard had the problem fixed surgically and was assigned as commander of the Apollo 14 mission to the moon. He was responsible for the most accurate lunar module landing ever, and spent 9 hours and 17 minutes exploring the moon's surface outside the module. During that time, he famously knocked a couple of golf balls with a six-iron attached to his sample-collecting tool. With one arm (due to the space suit), he managed to drive further than professional golfers on Earth could ever hope to, thanks to the moon's lower gravity.

Before and after his Apollo mission, Shepard served as Chief of the Astronaut Office. He retired from NASA and the Navy in 1974, having achieved the rank of Rear Admiral. Shepard went into private business, serving on the board of several corporations and foundations. He founded Seven Fourteen Enterprises, an umbrella corporation named after his two space missions. Shepard wrote a book with Deke Slayton, Moon Shot: The Inside Story of America's Race to the Moon. Shepard compared his book to The Right Stuff by Tom Wolfe, saying, "'We wanted to call ours 'The Real Stuff,' since his was just fiction.''

Alan Shepard died on July 21, 1998 at the age of 74.

6. EDGAR D. MITCHELL

Ed Mitchell joined the Navy in 1952 and became a test pilot. Then he earned a PhD in Aeronautics and Astronautics from MIT. NASA selected him for the astronaut corps in 1966. In January of 1971, Mitchell flew on Apollo 14 as lunar module pilot, becoming the sixth man to walk on the lunar surface. He retired in 1972 and founded the Institute of Noetic Sciences, which explores psychic and paranormal events. Mitchell gained some notoriety after NASA for his views on UFOs, as he has asserted that the government is covering up evidence at Roswell. His information, he admitted, came secondhand from various sources.

Mitchell died on February 4, 2016, the eve of the 45th anniversary of his lunar landing.

7. DAVID RANDOLPH SCOTT

David Scott joined the Air Force after graduating from West Point. Selected as an astronaut in 1963, he flew with Neil Armstrong on the Gemini 8 mission and was command module pilot on Apollo 9. Scott then went to the moon on Apollo 15, which landed on the lunar surface on July 30, 1971. It was the first mission to land near mountains. Scott and Jim Irwin spent 18 hours exploring the lunar landscape in the Lunar Roving Vehicle in the first mission to use such a vehicle to travel on the moon.

Scott became famous for the "postage stamp incident," in which he took unauthorized postage stamp covers to the moon with the intent to sell them afterwards. NASA had turned a blind eye to such activities before, but publicity over the matter caused them to discipline Scott and he never flew again. Scott retired from NASA in 1977 and served as a consultant for several movies and TV shows about the space program. He also wrote a book with former cosmonaut Alexei Leonov, Two Sides of the Moon: Our Story of the Cold War Space Race.

David Scott is 85 years old.

8. JAMES B. IRWIN

Air Force test pilot James Irwin became an astronaut in 1966. He was the lunar module pilot for Apollo 15 in 1971. His 18.5 hours of lunar surface exploration included gathering many samples of rocks. The astronauts' medical conditions were being monitored from Earth, and they noticed Irwin developing symptoms of heart trouble. As he was breathing 100% oxygen and under lower gravity than on Earth, mission control decided he was in the best environment possible for such irregularity -under the circumstances. Irwin's heart rhythm was normal by the time Apollo 15 returned to Earth, but he had a heart attack a few months later. Irwin retired from NASA and the Air Force (with the rank of Colonel) in 1972 and founded the High Flight Foundation in order to spread the Christian gospel during the last twenty years of his life. He notably took several groups on expeditions to Mt. Ararat to search for Noah's Ark.

James Irwin died on August 8, 1991, of a heart attack. He was 61 years old.

9. JOHN WATTS YOUNG

John Young is so far the longest serving astronaut in NASA history. He was selected as an astronaut in 1962 and his first space flight was in 1965 aboard Gemini 3 with Gus Grissom. He achieved some notoriety at that time by smuggling a corned beef sandwich onto the flight, angering NASA. But Young went on to complete a total of six space missions in the Gemini, Apollo, and the space shuttle programs. He orbited the moon on the Apollo 10 mission, then was commander of the Apollo 16 mission and became the ninth person to walk on the moon. Young was also commander of the first space shuttle flight in 1981 and returned for shuttle flight 9 in 1983, which deployed the first Spacelab module. Young was also scheduled for another space shuttle flight in 1986, which was delayed after the Challenger disaster, so the veteran astronaut never made his seventh flight. Young finally retired from NASA after 42 years of service in 2004.

John Young died on January 5, 2018 at the age of 87 following complications with pneumonia.

10. CHARLES M. DUKE JR.

Astronaut Charles Duke was capcom during the Apollo 11 mission. His is the voice you recall saying, "Roger, Twank... Tranquility, we copy you on the ground. You got a bunch of guys about to turn blue. We're breathing again. Thanks a lot!" when the lunar module landed on the moon. Duke also made history by catching German measles while training in the backup crew for the Apollo 13 mission, exposing the crew to the disease and causing Ken Mattingly to be replaced by Jack Swigart on that terrifying spaceflight. Duke went to the moon (with Mattingly as command module pilot) on the Apollo 16 mission in April of 1972. He retired from NASA in 1975 having reached the rank of Brigadier General in the U.S. Air Force, and founded Duke Investments. Duke also became a Christian and a lay minister to prison inmates.

Charles Duke is 82 years old.

11. HARRISON "JACK" SCHMITT

Jack Schmitt was a geologist first, and trained as a pilot only after becoming a NASA astronaut. In fact, he was only the second civilian to fly into space, after Neil Armstrong, who was a veteran at the time of his flights. Schmitt was assigned to fly to the moon on the Apollo 18 mission, but when the Apollo 18 and 19 missions were cancelled in September of 1970, the scientific community lobbied to have Schmitt reassigned to Apollo 17 (replacing Joe Engle) as lunar module pilot. He was the first scientist in outer space. On the Apollo 17 mission, he and Gene Cernan spent three days on the lunar surface (a record) and drove their Lunar Roving Vehicle around collecting samples, conducting experiments, and leaving measuring instruments behind. Schmitt and Cernan gathered 250 pounds of lunar material to take back.

After resigning from NASA in 1975, Schmitt, a Republican, was elected Senator for New Mexico and served from 1977 to 1983. He became an adjunct professor at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, and lives in Silver City, New Mexico. In recent years, Dr. Schmitt's scientific background and political leanings have kept him in the spotlight as he has said that the concept of climate change is "a red herring," and that environmentalism is linked with communism.

Jack Schmitt is 82 years old.

12. EUGENE E. CERNAN

As a Navy pilot, Gene Cernan logged over 5,000 hours flying time. He was accepted into the astronaut program in 1963. Cernan's first space flight was on Gemini IX in 1966, in which he conducted extravehicular activities (a space walk), followed by the Apollo 10 mission in May of 1969, which orbited the moon. Cernan was assigned commander of the Apollo 17 mission before anyone knew it would be the last Apollo mission. Even after the Apollo program was cut, no one knew for sure that travel to the moon would be abandoned for decades. When Schmitt and Cernan boarded their lunar module for the last time on December 13th, 1972, Cernan said:

"I'm on the surface; and, as I take man's last step from the surface, back home for some time to come — but we believe not too long into the future — I'd like to just [say] what I believe history will record. That America's challenge of today has forged man's destiny of tomorrow. And, as we leave the Moon at Taurus-Littrow, we leave as we came and, God willing, as we shall return: with peace and hope for all mankind. Godspeed the crew of Apollo 17."

Cernan retired from the Navy and from NASA in 1976. He went on to found an aerospace technology firm, and wrote a book about his experiences as an astronaut. He also contributed his talents to ABC-TV as a commentator during shuttle flights and has made appearances on various space specials. In September of 2011, Cernan testified before Congress on the future of the space program.

The space program has never been an entitlement, it's an investment in the future - an investment in technology, jobs, international respect and geo-political leadership, and perhaps most importantly in the inspiration and education of our youth. Those best and brightest minds at NASA and throughout the multitudes of private contractors, large and small, did not join the team to design windmills or redesign gas pedals, but to live their dreams of once again taking us where no man has gone before.

Gene Cernan died on January 16, 2017

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U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons
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5 Things You Didn't Know About Sally Ride
U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons
U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons

You know Sally Ride as the first American woman to travel into space. But here are five things you might not know about the astronaut, who was born on this day in 1951.

1. SHE PROVED THERE IS SUCH THING AS A STUPID QUESTION.

When Sally Ride made her first space flight in 1983, she was both the first American woman and the youngest American to make the journey to the final frontier. Both of those distinctions show just how qualified and devoted Ride was to her career, but they also opened her up to a slew of absurd questions from the media.

Journalist Michael Ryan recounted some of the sillier questions that had been posed to Ride in a June 1983 profile for People. Among the highlights:

Q: “Will the flight affect your reproductive organs?”
A: “There’s no evidence of that.”

Q: “Do you weep when things go wrong on the job?”
A: “How come nobody ever asks (a male fellow astronaut) those questions?"

Forget going into space; Ride’s most impressive achievement might have been maintaining her composure in the face of such offensive questions.

2. SHE MIGHT HAVE BEEN A TENNIS PRO.

When Ride was growing up near Los Angeles, she played more than a little tennis, and she was seriously good at it. She was a nationally ranked juniors player, and by the time she turned 18 in 1969, she was ranked 18th in the whole country. Tennis legend Billie Jean King personally encouraged Ride to turn pro, but she went to Swarthmore instead before eventually transferring to Stanford to finish her undergrad work, a master’s, and a PhD in physics.

King didn’t forget about the young tennis prodigy she had encouraged, though. In 1984 an interviewer playfully asked the tennis star who she’d take to the moon with her, to which King replied, “Tom Selleck, my family, and Sally Ride to get us all back.”

3. HOME ECONOMICS WAS NOT HER BEST SUBJECT.

After retiring from space flight, Ride became a vocal advocate for math and science education, particularly for girls. In 2001 she founded Sally Ride Science, a San Diego-based company that creates fun and interesting opportunities for elementary and middle school students to learn about math and science.

Though Ride was an iconic female scientist who earned her doctorate in physics, just like so many other youngsters, she did hit some academic road bumps when she was growing up. In a 2006 interview with USA Today, Ride revealed her weakest subject in school: a seventh-grade home economics class that all girls had to take. As Ride put it, "Can you imagine having to cook and eat tuna casserole at 8 a.m.?"

4. SHE HAD A STRONG TIE TO THE CHALLENGER.

Ride’s two space flights were aboard the doomed shuttle Challenger, and she was eight months deep into her training program for a third flight aboard the shuttle when it tragically exploded in 1986. Ride learned of that disaster at the worst possible time: she was on a plane when the pilot announced the news.

Ride later told AARP the Magazine that when she heard the midflight announcement, she got out her NASA badge and went to the cockpit so she could listen to radio reports about the fallen shuttle. The disaster meant that Ride wouldn’t make it back into space, but the personal toll was tough to swallow, too. Four of the lost members of Challenger’s crew had been in Ride’s astronaut training class.

5. SHE DIDN'T SELL OUT.

A 2003 profile in The New York Times called Ride one of the most famous women on Earth after her two space flights, and it was hard to argue with that statement. Ride could easily have cashed in on the slew of endorsements, movie deals, and ghostwritten book offers that came her way, but she passed on most opportunities to turn a quick buck.

Ride later made a few forays into publishing and endorsements, though. She wrote or co-wrote more than a half-dozen children’s books on scientific themes, including To Space and Back, and in 2009 she appeared in a print ad for Louis Vuitton. Even appearing in an ad wasn’t an effort to pad her bank account, though; the ad featured an Annie Leibovitz photo of Ride with fellow astronauts Buzz Aldrin and Jim Lovell gazing at the moon and stars. According to a spokesperson, all three astronauts donated a “significant portion” of their modeling fees to Al Gore’s Climate Project.

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