12 Surprising Effects of Daylight Saving Time

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Every March, clocks “spring forward” across much of the United States, robbing people of one precious hour of sleep. While hearing those same people complain about being tired is one not-so-surprising effect of Daylight Saving Time, the possibility of a longer prison sentence for those going before a judge on “sleepy Monday” is less expected. Here are 12 surprising effects of Daylight Saving Time—the good, the bad, and the scientifically ambiguous.

1. INCREASED SPENDING

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In 2016, JP Morgan Chase decided to look into the economic consequences of Daylight Saving Time (DST) by examining Los Angeles and Phoenix, two cities that are large, relatively close to each other, and have stable weather. Critically, Phoenix doesn’t observe DST while Los Angeles does [PDF].

Among their findings, DST was “associated with a 0.9 percent increase in daily card spending per capita in Los Angeles at the beginning of DST.” Perhaps more surprising, the end of DST was associated with a per capita daily spending reduction of 3.9 percent.

2. A HIGHER RISK OF HEART ATTACKS

Many studies have shown that DST is associated with an increase in heart attacks, with one study showing a 24 percent increase in the number of heart attacks on the Monday after DST at a group of Michigan hospitals. According to the University of Michigan, Mondays are bad for heart attacks in general (researchers believes the stress of beginning a new workweek and changes to the sleep-wake cycle are the reason why), but DST makes everything worse. Interestingly, the Tuesday following the end of DST was associated with a 21 percent drop in patients.

3. MISSED APPOINTMENTS

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Somewhat relatedly, a 2017 study found that the percentage of missed medical appointments increased significantly following DST. But as with heart attack risk, the missed appointments decreased in the fall—at least temporarily.

4. MORE CAR ACCIDENTS ... MAYBE (AT LEAST FOR A FEW DAYS)

Another field where studies aren't as consistent as one might expect is traffic accidents. In 2001, an American study found that there was a significant increase in accidents on the Monday after the shift to DST. A 2018 New Zealand study echoed the sentiment, finding that on the first day of DST road accidents increased 16 percent. In contrast, a Swedish study found that DST didn’t have any important effect in that country.

Of course, there’s more to DST than just those first couple days. After DST has gotten started, there’s more light on the road later in the day. Several studies have found this light reduces accidents substantially, so much so that one study concluded that a year-round DST would reduce motor vehicle occupant fatalities by 195 per year.

It’s so complicated that a 2010 analysis in Minnesota listed 10 studies that found positive effects of DST on road safety, and six studies that showed negative effects in both the spring and fall changes.

5. LONGER PRISON SENTENCES

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Researchers frequently use DST to study sleep deprivation in populations, as it’s a period of time when we all wake up an hour before we’re used to. One of these studies focused specifically on judicial punishment in U.S. federal courts [PDF]. The researchers looked at “sleepy Monday” (the Monday after the time change) and compared the sentence lengths to other Mondays. They found that on “sleepy Monday,” judges handed out 5 percent longer sentences. But don’t think you can get a lighter sentence during the fall switch; the researchers found no effect on sentencing at that time. But the researchers point out that this probably isn’t limited to judges—even managers may find themselves in the mood for doling out harsher punishments.

6. MORE MINING INJURIES

According to one study of mining injuries from 1983 to 2006, the Monday directly after the switch to DST was associated with 5.7 percent more workplace injuries and 68 percent more workdays lost because of injuries, indicating that there are more injuries that are more severe after the switch [PDF]. There isn’t, however, a corresponding decrease in the fall.

7. FEWER KOALA COLLISIONS

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One study decided to look at how DST affected human-wildlife interaction, specifically koala-vehicle collisions [PDF]. Because koalas are largely nocturnal, they often cross the road in the evening or at night. By shifting traffic patterns to times when it wasn’t dark, the researchers found that DST could “decrease collisions with koalas by 8 percent on weekdays and 11 percent at weekends” (although the difference between weekend and weekdays wasn’t significant, the researchers proposed that a slight increase in morning collisions lessened the benefit during the weekday). The researchers hope that further study can be done on human-animal interactions and DST.

Koalas aren’t the only ones crossing a road that benefit from DST; pedestrians might be safer as well. One study found “no significant detrimental effect on automobile crashes in the short run” and in the long run was associated with “a 8 to 11 percent fall in crashes involving pedestrians ... in the weeks after the spring shift to DST.” Meanwhile another study found that a year-long DST would mean 171 fewer pedestrian fatalities a year.

8. DECREASED SATISFACTION WITH LIFE IN GENERAL (AND INCREASED USE OF THE WORD TIRED)

In both the UK and Germany, studies have shown that life satisfaction deteriorates in the first week after the switch to DST in the spring. One study even quantified the deterioration in Germany with money. For the entire sample, the cost was calculated to be €213 (about $262), but for people in full employment—with relatively inflexible schedules—that increases to €332 ($408). And for the men in the sample, the cost of transition was €396 ($487).

Meanwhile, a Facebook analysis looked at the "feelings" people were sharing on the platform. On the Monday after the start of DST, the use of the word tired increased by 25 percent, with similar increases for “sleepy” and “exhausted” (as well as “wonderful” and “great”). In just the period from 5 a.m. to 12 p.m. on Monday, “feeling tired” usage increased an average of 86 percent, from a 12 percent increase in the non-DST Arizona up to a 231 percent increase in Delaware. By Thursday, “tired” is back to normal.

9. SLEEPIER KIDS (MAYBE)

The studies surrounding DST and school children are surprisingly inconclusive. On the one side, a 2009 article in Sleep Medicine looked at 469 Germans from 10 to 20 years old and divided them up into ‘larks’ (those who go to bed early and wake up early) and ‘owls’ (those who go to bed late and wake up late). They found that after the DST transition the group was sleepier for three weeks after the transition, with owls showing higher daytime sleepiness, and proposed that tests shouldn’t take place in the week following the switch over to DST.

A 2017 article in Economics of Education Review, however, looked at 22,000 Europeans students and found that, at least for low-stakes tests, the effect wasn’t statistically significant.

10. MORE CYBERLOAFING ON THE JOB

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Another study looked at people’s Google search trends for the Mondays before the switch to DST, immediately after the switch, and a week after, with a specific focus on sites like Facebook, YouTube, and ESPN (i.e. entertainment sites that people probably aren’t Googling for their jobs). They found that on the Monday after the switch, people searched for 3.1 percent more entertainment websites than the Monday before DST, and 6.4 percent more than the subsequent Monday. While the researchers caution they can’t be sure this was all "cyberloafing," the fact that there was nothing else special about these Mondays meant it very likely was [PDF].

11. MISTIMED INSULIN SHOTS

It might seem that in this age of smartphones and connected devices that figure it all out, the twice-yearly ritual of finding all the clocks to change is a thing of the past. But that’s not necessarily true. In a 2014 article in the Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, the authors pointed out an easy clock to miss: insulin pumps. Because most commercial pumps aren’t GPS-enabled and lack internal time change mechanisms, they have to be manually set up. The study authors discuss an international college student with an insulin pump that came from a country that didn’t observe DST, meaning the clock was an hour off. They say that no significant harm resulted, but it just serves as a reminder to make sure you check all your clocks.

12. HIGHER ENERGY BILLS

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One of the main rallying cries for DST is that it saves energy, but studies have been mixed. In 1975 the Department of Transportation issued a report about whether a short-lived, year-long DST experiment had been worthwhile [PDF]. They declared “modest overall benefits might be realized by a shift from the historic six-month DST system,” but cautioned that these benefits were difficult to isolate. Optimistically, though, they said DST might help reduce 1 percent of electricity use.

But as modern researchers have noted, electricity usage has shifted since then. Chief among the changes: Only 46 percent of the new single family households completed in 1975 had air conditioning, compared to 93 percent in 2016 [PDF].

Indiana provided a good place to test this change, because in 2006 they decided to observe DST as an entire state (individual counties had observed DST before). A study ultimately concluded that while DST does save electricity in lighting, this is more than offset by increased demands for heating and cooling, resulting in Indiana households being hit by $9 million per year in higher electricity bills [PDF]. However, the study only looked at residential electricity consumption, not commercial or industrial.

Around the same time, the Department of Energy also looked into DST and found that during a four-week extension, electricity use decreased about half a percentage point per day. Ultimately, Stanton Hadley at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory told Live Science, “I could see the answer being either way.”

The 10 Fastest Animals in the World

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Though humans love to assign superlatives—smartest, fastest, strongest—to the creatures of the animal kingdom, those attributes are, in practice, pretty difficult to measure. There are stories of sailfish traveling at 68 mph, for example, but they date to the 1940s and '50s; since then, scientists have determined that anything faster than 33 mph is likely impossible and would lead to "destructive consequences for fin tissues." Old record breaking numbers might be inflated by everything from high wind speeds to inaccurate methodology—not to mention the difficulty of determining the top speed of animals that may or may not be going full out when measured, or the lack of measuring all animals all the time (which means that there still might be record breakers out there). But of the measurements that have been done—and with those caveats in mind—scientists have determined that these 10 creatures are good candidates for the fastest animals on Earth.

10. QUARTER HORSE // 55 MPH

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At the lower end of the list there are several animals that run around the same speed. One of these is the quarter horse, which is generally faster than its more famous thoroughbred relatives—at least over short distances like a quarter mile. And the differences can be pronounced: One study found that over various races of various distances the quarter horse averaged 45 miles per hour, while the thoroughbred averaged only 35 mph—although the thoroughbred generally ran longer races. More impressively, the quarter horse was able to manage over 55 mph near the end of the race [PDF].

9. SPRINGBOK // 60 MPH

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According to recent research, the black wildebeest has unusual muscle fibers that allow it to run at high speeds for long distances. It's thought that the springbok—which is related to the wildebeest—may also have these fibers, which allows them to escape predators on the African Savannah.

8. PRONGHORN // APPROXIMATELY 40-62 MPH

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The pronghorn is frequently cited as the second fastest land animal on Earth, although many of those speed estimates are based on studies from the 1940s [PDF], when researchers proposed they could run at around 60 mph. Other observations have put pronghorns running almost seven miles in just 10 minutes, which works out to 40 mph.

7. ANNA'S HUMMINGBIRD // 61 MPH

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This little critter can travel at 61 mph for short distances during mating dives. That fact alone is impressive, but this hummingbird is a good candidate for fastest vertebrate by body lengths per second. According to a 2009 paper, it can reach speeds of 385 body lengths per second (that figure doesn't factor in the avian's .59-inch bill; factoring that in reduces the speed to around 320 bl/s). By comparison, the space shuttle reentering the atmosphere travels at around 207 bl/s. For a blue whale to match this hummingbird's relative speed, it would have to circle the entire planet in about an hour.

6. CHEETAH // 65 MPH

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The top speed of a cheetah is extremely difficult to determine. One of the fastest reliable records was obtained by a conservationist and the cheetah he'd raised. He attached some meat behind his vehicle and took off, and the cat gave chase, clocking approximately 64 mph over the trials. Meanwhile, a cheetah from the Cincinnati Zoo managed 61 mph in 2012. But these numbers aren't indicative of wild cheetah speed: When scientists put GPS collars on wild cheetahs, they found that although one reached 59 mph, the average top speed was just 33 mph, because it's easier to maneuver at slower speeds.

5. COMMON SWIFT // 70 MPH

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Many sources claim that the fastest bird in level flight is the white-throated needletail, sometimes called the spine-tailed swift. But there's no evidence for the methodology behind determining the record, so it's rarely considered valid. So this spot belongs to another swift: One specimen of common swift was observed flying at almost 70 mph.

4. GRAY-HEADED ALBATROSS // APPROXIMATELY 80 MPH

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The official Guinness World Record for fastest bird in level flight, however, doesn't go to the common swift. It goes to the gray-headed albatross, specifically one gray-headed albatross that got caught in an Antarctic storm. The paper detailing this record holder explained that "typical air speed of small albatrosses flying with a tail wind is [20±9 miles per hour], that speed being relatively constant with increasing wind force" and noted that the bird seemed to have a 40 to 50 mph tailwind. Audubon summarized this as "the equivalent of avian steroids."

3. HYBOMITRA HINEI WRIGHTI // APPROXIMATELY 90 MPH (WE THINK)

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According to an article published in Discover in 2000, an entomologist at the University of Florida attempted to recreate the mating behavior of the Hybomitra hinei wrighti horsefly. Males of this species chase and catch the females, and together they fall to the ground. To simulate this, the researcher fired a plastic pellet from an air rifle; the male horsefly chased the pellet, reaching speeds of at least 90 mph. Since then, little research has been done on the subject, and the result is noted as being "a noteworthy record" in "the unrefereed literature."

2. BRAZILIAN FREE-TAILED BATS // 100 MPH (MAYBE)

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According to a 2016 paper, all seven of the Brazilian free-tailed bats studied traveled faster than 55 mph. Five hit almost 70 mph and one flew 100 miles per hour, making it potentially the fastest flying animal in the world. Some scientists that spoke to New Scientist were skeptical of the record, however, saying that the bats may have had gravity or wind assists, but the authors of the study expressed confidence in their results.

1. PEREGRINE FALCON // 200+ MPH

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It's often said that the peregrine falcon can fly around 200 mph, which isn't the entire story. In level flight, the peregrine falcon is usually thought to max out at 40 to 60 mph—fast, but not ridiculously so. It reaches its top speed by falling in a specialized hunting dive called a stoop.

(This may seem like a bit of a cheat—extreme human skydivers can go considerably faster, and if diving speed for all other creatures were counted, this list would be almost entirely birds. A paper published in 2001 [PDF] looked at several dive speeds of just passerine birds and found a barn swallow that dived at 117 mph, a yellow wagtail diving at 118, and a pied flycatcher diving at 120 mph.)

For years, there was suspicion of this top speed, and in the 1990s, some researchers pegged the birds at a more reasonable stoop speed of 90 miles per hour. It wasn't until the 2000s that a researcher began skydiving with a peregrine falcon. Together they were diving at speeds well in excess of 200 mph. But because this is a dive, the title of fastest animal on Earth is still open to debate.

6 Superheroes Getting Their Own Movies and TV Shows

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by Mason Segall

Superheroes are all the rage right now and for the foreseeable future. The Marvel Cinematic Universe has redefined what blockbuster cinema means in the 21st century, aided in no small part by its propensity for multi-media enfranchisement.

Though their business model has been copied unsuccessfully (looking at you DCEU), many companies are looking to try their hand at the same lucrative enterprise by adopting a number of superheroes for visual media. Here are just a few of the ones that are currently in development or are upcoming.

1. INVINCIBLE

One of the hallmarks of the Image Comics label, fans have been crying for Invincible to leap off the page for years. Following a young superhero as he gradually sheds his naive innocence to overcome the increasingly large obstacles in his life, Invincible is being converted into an eight-episode Amazon animated series, making it the first partnership between Amazon and the comic's creator Robert Kirkman, who also penned the incredibly popular The Walking Dead.

2. AQUAMAN

Aquaman has always been derided as something of a novelty among superheroes. How is someone who talks to fish considered on the same tier as Superman and Wonder Woman? But then Jason Momoa was cast in the role for Justice League, and the world had to start taking him seriously as a character. Though his Justice League role wasn't highly regarded, there's still time for Aquaman director James Wan to turn things around for the character's standalone film.

3. THE BOYS

While not technically superheroes themselves, the Boys do have a lot to do with them, so they technically count for the purposes of this list. In a world where heroes are more akin to super-power celebrities than role models, the Boys are an international black ops team of super humans tasked with policing the superhero community, enforcing their own set of rules by any means necessary.

Made by the late great Garth Ennis, The Boys will be coming to Amazon in 2019 and will be produced by Seth Rogen and Evan Goldberg, the same team that saw Ennis's Preacher comic adapted to television for AMC.

4. CAPTAIN MARVEL

​As the next major addition to the MCU, Captain Marvel will be the latest of Marvel's more niche comic characters to be introduced to a mainstream audience. Taking place in the 1990s, her film will see ​Brie Larson in the title role as she comes to terms with both her human and alien backgrounds, eventually becoming the most powerful force yet seen in the MCU.

5. SWAMP-THING

​​Swamp-Thing is universally regarded, among fans anyway, as one of the most underrated DC characters. As an elemental guardian, Swamp-Thing channels and protects the Green, the very force of nature itself, to fight crime and preserve the environment. He'll be getting his own limited series on DC's upcoming streaming service where James Wan, director of the upcoming Aquaman, has reportedly taken a deep interest in production.

6. SHAZAM

One of the oldest and least appreciated superheroes, ​Shazam​ (previously Captain Marvel) has the powers of legendary gods and heroes and the body of a physically perfect adult, but the mind of a little boy more interested in having fun with his magically enhanced body than saving the world. He'll be played by Zachary Levi in an upcoming Shazam! film, directed by David F. Sandberg.

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