Aerial photo of site Mt05, a circular enclosure (140 meter diameter) located on a hilltop.
Aerial photo of site Mt05, a circular enclosure (140 meter diameter) located on a hilltop.
José Iriarte

Part of the Amazon Thought to Be Uninhabited May Have Been Home to 1 Million People

Aerial photo of site Mt05, a circular enclosure (140 meter diameter) located on a hilltop.
Aerial photo of site Mt05, a circular enclosure (140 meter diameter) located on a hilltop.
José Iriarte

Depictions of the pre-Columbian Amazon basin as dense, inhospitable jungle with just a handful of indigenous communities scattered along the river may need to be updated. According to research published in Nature Communications, there were millions more people living in the rainforest prior to Spanish colonization than previously believed.

The Amazon is the largest rainforest on Earth, which poses a challenge to archaeologists exploring the history of the people who lived there. It's long been assumed that native Amazonians chose to avoid the heart of the forest and instead lived as nomads, never straying far from the major rivers. Some old estimates placed the population of the entire basin between 1.5 and 2 million people.

Thanks to satellites, researchers can now identify traces of long-gone settlements in the less-explored regions of Brazil without having to set foot in the jungle. A team of archaeologists from the University of Exeter used satellite imaging to find geoglyphs—large shapes dug into the ground, possibly for ceremonial purposes—in part of the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso that was thought to be uninhabited.

Geoglyphs and mounded ring villages.
Geoglyphs and mounded ring villages.
Nature Communications, Jonas Gregorio de Souza et al.

After pinpointing the locations of these earthworks, archaeologists visited this section of the southern rim of the Amazon to see some of them in person. At each of the 24 sites they set out to confirm, they found a real-life geoglyph on the ground. At one location, they uncovered charcoal and pottery dating back to 1410 CE. In all, they documented 81 new sites with geoglyphs.

The earthworks would have been carved into the dirt during a seasonal drought, allowing the architects to clear a swath of rainforest. Fortified villages were built in or close to the glyphs, with a network of roads connecting them to each other. The researchers created a computer model that estimated that a 154,000-square-mile patch of land could be home to the remains of 1300 geoglyphs and villages, only two-thirds of which have been discovered. In the late pre-Columbian period, the area, comprising just 7 percent of the Amazon basin, may have sustained a population of 500,000 to 1 million people, according to the researchers' models.

Aerial photo of site ZMt04, which contains the two largest enclosures that were identified.
Aerial photo of site ZMt04, which contains the two largest enclosures that were identified.
José Iriarte

Disease and genocide brought on by the European invasion destroyed most of those settlements, and they were later reclaimed by the rainforest. But evidence of their existence suggests that deforestation and development of the Amazon isn't a new phenomenon.

"Our research shows we need to re-evaluate the history of the Amazon. It certainly wasn't an area populated only near the banks of large rivers, and the people who lived there did change the landscape," researcher José Iriarte said in a statement. "Studies such as ours mean we are gradually piecing together more and more information about the history of the largest rainforest on the planet."

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Aerial photo of site Mt05, a circular enclosure (140 meter diameter) located on a hilltop.
Evening Standard, Getty Images
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Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
$2.5 Million in World War II-Era Cash Discovered Beneath Winston Churchill's Former Tailor's Shop
Evening Standard, Getty Images
Evening Standard, Getty Images

A valuable secret has been hiding beneath the floorboards of a sporting goods store in the UK since World War II. As the BBC reports, about £30,000 in roughly 80-year-old British bank notes was unearthed by a renovation project at the Cotswold Outdoor store in Brighton. Adjusting for inflation, their value would be equal to roughly $2.5 million today.

Owner Russ Davis came across the hidden treasure while tearing out decades-worth of carpet and tiles beneath the property. What he initially assumed was a block of wood turned out to be a wad of cash caked in dirt. Each bundle held about £1000 worth of £1 and £5 notes, with about 30 bundles in total.

The bills are badly damaged, but one surviving design element holds an important clue to their history. Each note is printed in blue, the color of the emergency wartime currency first issued by the Bank of England in 1940.

At the time the money was buried, the property was home to the famous British furrier and couturier Bradley Gowns. Prime Minister Winston Churchill and his wife, Lady Clementine Churchill, were reportedly regular customers.

The reason the fortune was stowed beneath the building in the first place remains a mystery. Davis imagines that it might have come from a bank robbery, while Howard Bradley, heir to the Bradley Gowns family business, suspects it might have been stashed there as a getaway fund in anticipation of a Nazi invasion, as he told the New York Post.

The hoard will remain in the possession of the Sussex police as more details on the story emerge.

[h/t BBC]

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Aerial photo of site Mt05, a circular enclosure (140 meter diameter) located on a hilltop.
Jonathan Daniel, Getty Images
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Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
A World War II Bomber Lost with 11 Servicemembers Has Been Found After 74 Years
Jonathan Daniel, Getty Images
Jonathan Daniel, Getty Images

A B-24 D-1 bomber plane transporting 11 American servicemen was shot down over the South Pacific on March 11, 1944. For more than 70 years, the final resting place of the aircraft nicknamed Heaven Can Wait and the men it carried remained a mystery. Now, through the efforts of Project Recover, it's finally been identified.

Project Recover is an organization dedicated to locating the remains of U.S. aircraft that crashed into the ocean during World War II. To find the wreckage of this particular plane, a team of marine scientists, archaeologists, and historians worked together to trace its final flight.

Heaven Can Wait was on its way to bomb Japanese anti-aircraft batteries around Hansa Bay off the north coast of Papua New Guinea when it went down. Before heading off to Papua New Guinea to survey the area, Project Recover compiled data on the crash from military reports, diary entries from airmen on associated planes, and extended family members.

With that information in hand, the team traveled to the suspected crash site and searched a 10-square-mile patch of sea floor with sonar, divers, and aerial and aquatic robots. It took them 11 days to locate the wreckage of Heaven Can Wait in Hansa Bay, 213 feet beneath the ocean's surface.

Now that the bomber has been found, the U.S. government will assess the site before potentially recovering the remains of the lost servicemen. “This is an important step toward our ultimate goal of identifying and returning home the crew of Heaven Can Wait who bravely served our country during the battle at Hansa Bay,” Dan Friedkin, Project Recover team member and chairman and CEO of the Friedkin Group, said in a statement. “Our search efforts for the more than 72,000 missing American service members from World War II will continue as we seek to bring closure to the families impacted by their loss.”

Watch a video from Project Recover detailing the story of Heaven Can Wait below.

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