An 88,000-Year-Old Middle Finger May Change What We Know About Human Migration

Ian Cartwright
Ian Cartwright

A middle finger might change what we thought we knew about human migration from Africa. As Gizmodo reports, a new study in Nature Ecology and Evolution analyzes what may be the oldest modern human fossil outside of Africa and the Levant (modern-day Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan). Found in an ancient lake bed in the Arabian desert, the bone has been dated to 88,000 years ago, indicating that human migration from Africa may have started much earlier than previously thought.

Previous research has suggested that Homo sapiens populations migrated out of Africa and into Eurasia (perhaps thanks to climate change) in one big wave around 60,000 years ago. The fossilized finger bone, about an inch long, indicates the story might be more complicated.

A paleontologist with the Saudi Geological Survey, Iyad Zalmout, found the bone in 2016. He and his fellow researchers created 3D scans of the bone and compared them with other finger bones from Homo sapiens, Neanderthals, and modern primates like gorillas to determine that it is, in fact, a human bone. They then dated the fossil using uranium series dating, a measure of the bone's ratio of radioactive elements, to arrive at an estimated age of roughly 88,000 years old. They also found animal fossils and sediment at the site to be around 90,000 years old.

A surveyor stands in the desert.
The area in Saudi Arabia where the finger was found.
Klint Janulis

At that time, the area in the Nefud Desert where the bone was found would have been semi-arid grasslands surrounding a freshwater lake, a more hospitable climate than it is today. At some parts during this era, the Red Sea between Africa and the Arabian Peninsula would have been low enough to make it essentially just a big river, so humans could have crossed there, as a related article in the journal by anthropologist Donald Henry notes.

Several scientists told Gizmodo that it's possible that the bone isn't human at all—it could belong to a relative of Homo sapiens—and that the authors of the new study are overstating the significance of their finding, so the analysis is somewhat controversial.

However, other evidence has pointed to an earlier African exit date for humans. In 2015, scientists in China discovered human teeth they dated to 80,000 years ago, though they weren't able to date the bone directly—instead, they analyzed the teeth's surroundings. In January 2018, scientists announced that they had found a partial jawbone in an Israeli cave dating back at least 177,000 years.

"The ability of these early people to widely colonize this region [of Arabia] casts doubt on long held views that early dispersals out of Africa were localized and unsuccessful," said lead author Huw Groucutt, of the University of Oxford and the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, in a statement.

[h/t Gizmodo]

Remains of Late 19th-Century Shipwreck Found on Jersey Shore

iStock.com/Sierra Gaglione
iStock.com/Sierra Gaglione

The holiday season isn't usually associated with the beach, but nature has a funny way of delivering surprises no matter the time of year. The weekend before Christmas, the remains of an old ship stretching over 25 feet long were discovered at the southern area of Stone Harbor beach, according to nj.com.

Local historians believe the vessel is the D.H. Ingraham, a schooner that sank in 1886 during a voyage from Rockland, Maine, to Richmond, Virginia. Archives from the time recount that while the ship was delivering a cargo of lime, it caught fire. Thanks to station employees at the nearby Hereford Lighthouse, all five men aboard were rescued and given proper shelter for the next four days. The rescuers even received medals of honor from Congress, which are still on display inside the lighthouse, according to the Press of Atlantic City.

This is not the only shipwreck to have been discovered along the Jersey Shore; in 2014, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers found one while making repairs to the Barnegat Inlet jetty. (New Jersey has its own Historical Divers Association, and at one point its president, Dan Lieb, estimated that the state had up to 7000 shipwrecks off its coasts.)

To check out more coverage about shipwrecks, like this 48-foot find in Florida earlier this year, click here.

[h/t nj.com]

People Have Been Dining on Caviar Since the Stone Age

iStock.com/Lisovskaya
iStock.com/Lisovskaya

Millennia before caviar became a staple hors d'oeuvre at posh parties, it was eaten from clay pots by Stone Age humans. That's the takeaway of a new study published in the journal PLOS One. As Smithsonian reports, traces of cooked fish roe recovered from an archeological site in Germany show just how far back the history of the dish goes.

For the study, researchers from Germany conducted a protein analysis of charred food remains caked to the shards of an Stone Age clay cooking vessel. After isolating roughly 300 proteins and comparing them to that of boiled fresh fish roe and tissue, they were able to the identify the food scraps as carp roe, or eggs. The scientists write that the 4000 BCE-era hunter-gatherers likely cooked the fish roe in a pot of water or fish broth heated by embers, and covered the pot with leaves to contain the heat or add additional flavor.

The clay shards were recovered from Friesack 4 in Brandenburg, Germany, a Stone Age archaeological site that has revealed about 150,000 artifacts, including items crafted from antlers, wood, and bone, since it was discovered in the 1930s. In the same study, the researchers report that they also found remnants of bone-in pork on a vessel recovered from the same site.

Other archaeological digs have shown that some of the foods we think of as modern delicacies have been around for thousands of years, including cheese, salad dressing, and bone broth. The same goes for beverages: Recently a 13,000-year-old brewery was uncovered in the Middle East.

[h/t Smithsonian]

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