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15 Things You Might Not Know About Rhinos

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The rhinoceros is the second largest land mammal on Earth, next to the elephant. It's also one of the most aggressive. But despite its reputation as the bully on the playground, rhinos are vulnerable when it comes to one great danger: humans. Their ranks have drastically dwindled over the past century due to poaching and habitat loss, and conservationists are now trying to save them from extinction. In recognition of Save the Rhinos Day on May 1, here are 15 important facts about nature's knight in armor.

1. THEY'RE GREEK—AT LEAST IN NAME.

Rhinoceros in a field with a pond

The word rhinoceros stems from the Greek words rhino (nose) and keras (horn). So when you shorten the word to "rhino," you're really just saying "nose."

2. A GROUP OF RHINOS IS CALLED A "CRASH."

Three rhinos drinking water

Crash of Rhinos also happens to be an emo band from Derby, England.

3. THEY USED TO BE 16 FEET TALL.

older rhino walking with two younger rhinos

The paraceratherium, a hornless species of ancient rhinoceros that roamed the Earth 30 million years ago, stood over 16 feet tall. Modern rhinos are significantly smaller, of course, but scientists don't really know how they evolved. The white rhino, which grows up to 6 feet tall, is the largest of the five species that exist today. Measuring under 5 feet in height, the smallest is the Sumatran rhino, which is the only hairy species as well as the closest living relative of the extinct woolly rhinoceros.

4. WHITE RHINOS AND BLACK RHINOS ARE ACTUALLY THE SAME COLOR.

two rhinos standing in grass

They're both essentially grayish-brown. One widely spread rumor suggests that white rhinos were originally called wijd (wide) by Dutch settlers in Africa, referring to the animal's wide mouth, which was then mistranslated into English as "white." However, rhino expert Kees Rookmaaker has stated that there is no linguistic evidence to support that tale. It remains a mystery how the white rhino got its name.

5. RHINOS SAY MMWONK WHEN THEY'RE HAPPY.

Indian rhinos are known to make at least 10 distinct sounds, including honks (used during head-to-head fights), bleats (signaling submission), and moo-grunts (used between mothers and calves). Black rhinos use grunts as a greeting and make a mmwonk sound when they're content.

6. THEY HAVE A COMPLICATED RELATIONSHIP WITH THE OXPECKER BIRD.

Oxpecker bird sits on the head of a rhino

Rhinos are often seen with oxpeckers hitching a ride on their backs, but the benefit of these birds is currently debated. The traditional argument is that they snack on bugs and ticks that crawl on the rhino's skin, but in 2000, research on cattle failed to find a consistent benefit to having oxpeckers, while a 2004 study on captive (and tick-free) rhinos found that rather than being helpful, oxpeckers spent much of their time picking at wounds and feasting on the rhino’s blood [PDF]. Meanwhile, other researchers argue that the birds actually do eat ticks and the like. The birds may give the rhinos one additional benefit though: A 2010 experiment found that without oxpeckers, black rhinos were able to detect a person walking up to a rhino 23 percent of the time. With the oxpeckers present that shot up to 97 percent, perhaps explaining why in Swahili, the oxpecker is referred to as the "rhino's guard."

7. THEY'RE LONG-DISTANCE SPRAYERS.

rhino spray urinating

In a show of dominance, alpha male Indian rhinos can spray urine a distance of over 16 feet. This is typically done in the presence of other males or breeding-age females. Other rhinos also spray urine: For males this is typically for marking territory, while female Sumatran rhinos [PDF] have been observed spray urinating 69 times in a 12 hour period before giving birth, and continued this behavior even after the calf was weaned, likely to mask the scent of the calf.

8. THEY COMMUNICATE THROUGH POOP.

rhino sniffing poop

White rhino droppings are unique identifiers, meaning that a rhino can take one whiff of a dung heap and instantly know the animal's age, sex, and reproductive status, according to one study. All white rhinos in a particular area head to the same spot to defecate, called a midden, which is essentially a communal dumping ground.

"We think of dung as just a waste product, but it's really a good way for animals to communicate," Courtney Marneweck, the head of the study, told National Geographic. "There's a lot of information there that we haven't taken advantage of."

9. THEIR FARTS SMELL LIKE SULFUR.

rhino sniffing another rhino's butt

Rhinos are notorious for passing particularly noxious gas, according to the book Does It Fart? The Definitive Field Guide to Animal Flatulence:

"Rhino farts also smell really bad, so much so that they have even given rise to a piece of brewing terminology; when the yeast used to make alcohol through fermentation produces hydrogen sulfide it gives off a horrible sulfur smell, known as a rhino fart."

10. THE MALES CAN GET AGGRESSIVE.

two male rhinos fighting with their horns

Rhinos aren't afraid to use their horns when it comes to matters of the heart. Male black rhinos are particularly aggressive in their pursuit of a mate, and the rate of "mortal combat" among these horned lovers is higher than any other mammal on the planet. About half of males and 30 percent of females die from injuries sustained while fighting.

11. THEY'RE RELATED TO ZEBRAS.

rhinos gathering with zebras

The closest living relatives to rhinos are not elephants or hippos, but rather horses, tapirs, and zebras, all of which are classified as odd-toed ungulates. Rhinos and tapirs walk on three toes, while horses walk on one (which we know as a hoof).

12. THEY HAVE SENSITIVE FEET.

rhino's feet

Speaking of toes, rhinos do have one weak spot. Rhinos typically put most of their weight on their toenails when they walk to avoid wearing out their sensitive feet. This is easy to do in the wild, where marshes and mushy wetlands abound, but when they're brought to zoos, their toenails tend to wear down on hard surfaces like concrete and asphalt. This can lead to swollen, sore, and cracked feet, making them more susceptible to infection. To tackle this issue, one zoo glued modified horseshoes onto a rhino's toes, which you can read about in the book The Rhino With Glue-On Shoes.

13. THEY'RE WALLOWERS.

But not because they're depressed. For a rhino, a nice mud bath is like a day at the spa. It not only helps the animals cool down in hot weather, but it's also great for their skin, helping to ward off pesky insects. Although the animals have a pretty thick dermis, they're surprisingly vulnerable when it comes to bug bites and sunburn.

14. THEIR HORNS ARE MADE OF THE SAME PROTEIN FOUND IN HUMAN FINGERNAILS.

close-up on a rhino's horns

Rhino horns are made up of nothing but keratin, but that doesn't stop poachers from killing thousands of the animals each year and selling their horns on the black market. The horns are fashioned into jewelry and figurines, and in some parts of Asia they're believed to hold healing properties (they don't).

15. THEY RISK EXTINCTION.

man with binoculars in the wild

Just a century ago, there were more than half a million rhinos around the world. Now, around 30,000 survive in the wild, largely due to poaching. All five species of rhino are in danger, but three are considered critically endangered: Sumatran, Javan, and black rhinos. Today, there are about 60 remaining Javan rhinos, fewer than 100 Sumatran rhinos, and about 5000 black rhinos.

There is some good news, though. Thanks to conservation efforts, black and white rhino numbers have increased in recent years, with the white rhino having been "brought back from the brink of extinction," according to the World Wildlife Fund. The organization Save the Rhinos is taking a multi-pronged approach to the issue, working to deploy more field rangers to protect the animals, reduce demand in Asia, and breed rhinos that are currently in captivity.

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Martin Wittfooth
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Art
The Cat Art Show Is Coming Back to Los Angeles in June
Martin Wittfooth
Martin Wittfooth

After dazzling cat and art lovers alike in 2014 and again in 2016, the Cat Art Show is ready to land in Los Angeles for a third time. The June exhibition, dubbed Cat Art Show 3: The Sequel Returns Again, will feature feline-centric works from such artists as Mark Ryden, Ellen von Unwerth, and Marion Peck.

Like past shows, this one will explore cats through a variety of themes and media. “The enigmatic feline has been a source of artistic inspiration for thousands of years,” the show's creator and curator Susan Michals said in a press release. “One moment they can be a best friend, the next, an antagonist. They are the perfect subject matter, and works of art, all by themselves.”

While some artists have chosen straightforward interpretations of the starring subject, others are using cats as a springboard into topics like gender, politics, and social media. The sculpture, paintings, and photographs on display will be available to purchase, with prices ranging from $300 to $150,000.

Over 9000 visitors are expected to stop into the Think Tank Gallery in Los Angeles during the show's run from June 14 to June 24. Tickets to the show normally cost $5, with a portion of the proceeds benefiting a cat charity, and admission will be free for everyone on Wednesday, June 20. Check out a few of the works below.

Man in Garfield mask holding cat.
Tiffany Sage

Painting of kitten.
Brandi Milne

Art work of cat in tree.
Kathy Taselitz

Painting of white cat.
Rose Freymuth-Frazier

A cat with no eyes.
Rich Hardcastle

Painting of a cat on a stool.
Vanessa Stockard

Sculpture of pink cat.
Scott Hove

Painting of cat.
Yael Hoenig
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Tony Karumba, AFP/Getty Images
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Animals
How a Pregnant Rhino Named Victoria Could Save an Entire Subspecies
Sudan, the last male member of the northern white rhino subspecies, while being shipped to Kenya in 2009
Sudan, the last male member of the northern white rhino subspecies, while being shipped to Kenya in 2009
Tony Karumba, AFP/Getty Images

The last male northern white rhino died at a conservancy in Kenya earlier this year, prompting fears that the subspecies was finally done for after decades of heavy poaching. Scientists say there's still hope, though, and they're banking on a pregnant rhino named Victoria at the San Diego Zoo, according to the Associated Press.

Victoria is actually a southern white rhino, but the two subspecies are related. Only two northern white rhinos survive, but neither of the females in Kenya are able to reproduce. Victoria was successfully impregnated through artificial insemination, and if she successfully carries her calf to term in 16 to 18 months, scientists say she might be able to serve as a surrogate mother and propagate the northern white rhino species.

But how would that work if no male northern rhinos survive? As the AP explains, scientists are working to recreate northern white rhino embryos using genetic technology. The San Diego Zoo Institute for Conservation Research has the frozen cell lines of 12 different northern white rhinos, which can be transformed into stem cells—and ultimately, sperm and eggs. The sperm of the last northern white male rhino, Sudan, was also saved before he died.

Scientists have been monitoring six female southern white rhinos at the San Diego Zoo to see if any emerge as likely candidates for surrogacy. However, it's not easy to artificially inseminate a rhino, and there have been few successful births in the past. There's still a fighting chance, though, and scientists ultimately hope they'll be able to build up a herd of five to 15 northern white rhinos over the next few decades.

[h/t Time Magazine]

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