Lieutenant Elizabeth Crapo, NOAA Corps, Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons
Lieutenant Elizabeth Crapo, NOAA Corps, Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons

Which is the Largest National Park in the World?

Lieutenant Elizabeth Crapo, NOAA Corps, Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons
Lieutenant Elizabeth Crapo, NOAA Corps, Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons

Ben Waggoner:

A couple of folks have listed Northeast Greenland National Park, at 927,000 square kilometers (375,000 square miles). But the U.S. has a larger reserve. It’s not officially called a National Park, but it is a National Monument. (The difference is that National Parks can only be created by an act of Congress, but a President can declare any federally owned territory in the U.S. as a National Monument. Many National Monuments have gone on to be declared National Parks, and most are managed by the National Park System, although this one is managed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, or the NOAA.) So you can decide whether you want to let this "count" as the largest national park; even though its official designation is National Monument, it’s a national park for all intents and purposes.

May I introduce you to the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument—1,510,000 square kilometers, or 583,000 square miles, and almost all of it water, although it includes 10 islands.

Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument
Quora

I don’t say this often, but I appreciate George W. Bush, for having created this monument in June 2006 (as the Northwest Hawaiian Islands National Monument). Almost all of it was already part of the State of Hawaii, although no one was living on any of the islands. It includes some earlier refuges and monuments, such as the Battle of Midway National Memorial. It was expanded in 2016 to the edges of the 200-mile Exclusive Economic Zone.

The monument protects 7000 species of marine animals, as well as birds and plants, including many endangered ones, and many fish and shellfish populations that have not yet recovered from overfishing in the 1980s and 1990s. (You can learn more at the official Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument website.)

It doesn’t look like much on the surface:

Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument
Quora

But the view from below is pretty good:

Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument
Quora

This post originally appeared on Quora. Click here to view.

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What’s the Difference Between Prison and Jail?
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Many people use the terms jail and prison interchangeably, and while both terms refer to areas where people are held, there's a substantial difference between the two methods of incarceration. Where a person who is accused of a crime is held, and for how long, is a factor in determining the difference between the two—and whether a person is held in a jail or a prison is largely determined by the severity of the crime they have committed.

A jail (or, for our British friends, a gaol) refers to a small, temporary holding facility—run by local governments and supervised by county sheriff departments—that is designed to detain recently arrested people who have committed a minor offense or misdemeanor. A person can also be held in jail for an extended period of time if the sentence for their offense is less than a year. There are currently 3163 local jail facilities in the United States.

A jail is different from the similarly temporary “lockup”—sort of like “pre-jail”—which is located in local police departments and holds offenders unable to post bail, people arrested for public drunkenness who are kept until they are sober, or, most importantly, offenders waiting to be processed into the jail system.

A prison, on the other hand, is usually a large state- or federal-run facility meant to house people convicted of a serious crime or felony, and whose sentences for those crimes surpass 365 days. A prison could also be called a “penitentiary,” among other names.

To be put in a state prison, a person must be convicted of breaking a state law. To be put in a federal prison, a person must be convicted of breaking federal law. Basic amenities in a prison are more extensive than in a jail because, obviously, an inmate is likely to spend more than a year of his or her life confined inside a prison. As of 2012, there were 4575 operating prisons in the U.S.—the most in the world. The country with the second highest number of operating prisons is Russia, which has just 1029 facilities.

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What Do Morticians Do With the Blood They Take Out of Dead Bodies?
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Zoe-Anne Barcellos:

The blood goes down the sink drain, into the sewer system.

I am not a mortician, but I work for a medical examiner/coroner. During an autopsy, most blood is drained from the decedent. This is not on purpose, but a result of gravity. Later a mortician may or may not embalm, depending on the wishes of the family.

Autopsies are done on a table that has a drain at one end; this drain is placed over a sink—a regular sink, with a garbage disposal in it. The blood and bodily fluids just drain down the table, into the sink, and down the drain. This goes into the sewer, like every other sink and toilet, and (usually) goes to a water treatment plant.

You may be thinking that this is biohazardous waste and needs to be treated differently. [If] we can’t put oil, or chemicals (like formalin) down the drains due to regulations, why is blood not treated similarly? I would assume because it is effectively handled by the water treatment plants. If it wasn’t, I am sure the regulations would be changed.

Now any items that are soiled with blood—those cannot be thrown away in the regular trash. Most clothing worn by the decedent is either retained for evidence or released with the decedent to the funeral home—even if they were bloody.

But any gauze, medical tubing, papers, etc. that have blood or bodily fluids on them must be thrown away into a biohazardous trash. These are lined with bright red trash liners, and these are placed in a specially marked box and taped closed. These boxes are stacked up in the garage until they are picked up by a specialty garbage company. I am not sure, but I am pretty sure they are incinerated.

Additionally anything sharp or pointy—like needles, scalpels, etc.—must go into a rigid “sharps” container. When they are 2/3 full we just toss these into one of the biotrash containers.

The biotrash is treated differently, as, if it went to a landfill, then the blood (and therefore the bloodborne pathogens like Hepatitis and HIV) could be exposed to people or animals. Rain could wash it into untreated water systems.

This post originally appeared on Quora. Click here to view.

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