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10 "Udderly" Fascinating Facts About Cows

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Cows dot fields and pastures across many countries, and cow products are valued and consumed worldwide because their production of milk and meat isn't seasonal, as crops usually are. Cow products can also be preserved for extended use, such as butter, cheese, and smoked or cured meats. And, scientists are still finding new uses for the roughly 80 pounds of manure that a dairy cow produces daily. Chew the cud over these 10 facts about bovines. 

1. COWS ARE KILLERS.

Cow looking at a camera.
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An ABC News report cited a 2012 study, published in Wilderness and Environmental Medicine, which found that cattle cause an average of 22 deaths per year. Sharks, on the other hand, kill about six people per year. It sounds like SyFy should have made Cownado instead.

2. COW TIPPING IS JUST A MYTH.

Cow sleeping with its head on the rock.
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It might be funny to imagine a sleeping cow falling over with just a gentle shove, but cow tipping isn't that easy. Actually, it's nearly impossible. Cows sleep lying down and are generally wary of approaching humans, so they're never really blissed-out enough to allow a stranger to get close enough to touch them. But the bigger obstacle is their sheer size. Cows are massive—on average 1500 pounds—and balance their weight on all four legs.

3. COWS HAVE COMPLICATED DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS.

Cows eating hay in a row.
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Cows' stomachs are made up of four pouches—the reticulum, the rumen, the omasum, and the abomasum—each serving a specific purpose. Cows barely chew their food before it enters the first and largest part of the stomach called the rumen. Once the rumen is full, the cow lies down and the reticulum—which is made of muscle and is connected to the rumen so food and water can easily pass back and forth—pushes the unchewed food back up the esophagus and into the mouth. After re-chewing, or rumination, the food eventually passes through the omasum. The omasum filters out the water and gives the bacteria in the rumen more time to break down the food and take in more nutrients. Finally, the food enters the abomasum, which functions similar to a human stomach.

4. THERE ARE SURROGATE COWS.

Pregnant cow in a field.
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Transferring embryos from a genetically superior cow to a merely adequate cow is becoming more common. The procedure—known as embryo transfer (ET)—involves injecting a superior cow with hormones so she produces multiple eggs. Her eggs then need to be fertilized, either naturally or through artificial insemination. When the eggs are fertilized, a vet performs an "embryo flush" to remove them. That generally results in six to seven usable embryos, but can produce as many as 80 or 90. Without hormone treatment, a cow can only produce one embryo.

There are a number of reasons to perform ET—genetically superior cows produce genetically superior eggs. When they're transferred to surrogates, herds gain more powerful and efficient cows, instead of the offspring the surrogates might produce on their own. Embryos are also easily sent overseas to improve the bovine gene pool elsewhere, supplying more (and more efficient) milk-producing cows to countries that lack enough resources to meet demand. (For more on the cow surrogacy process, check out this story from NPR's Abby Wendle.)

5. THE ORIGIN OF THE WORD CATTLE STEMS FROM THE WORD FOR PERSONAL PROPERTY.

Cattle in a field.
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According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, the origin of cattle is chatel, the Anglo-French word for personal property. Chatel comes from the Medieval Latin term capitale.

6. A COW IS TECHNICALLY A FEMALE WHO HAS GIVEN BIRTH TO AT LEAST ONE CALF.

Mother cow licking a baby calf.
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There are specific terms for bovines depending on their age, sex, and purpose. For example, a "bull" is a mature, male bovine used for breeding, while a "steer" is a male that's been castrated and is used for its beef. A "heifer" is a female bovine that has yet to have calves, and a "bred heifer" is a pregnant heifer. There are a number of additional terms that farmers use to describe members of their herd.

7. BULLS CAN'T SEE RED.

A matador in the arena with a bull.
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A bullfighter could just as easily wave a pink or purple flag to get a bull to charge. The bull isn't angered by the color—all bovines are red/green colorblind. Instead, it's the movement of the cloth that gets it all riled up. The real reason matadors wear red: to hide the bull's blood.

8. COWS WITH NAMES PRODUCE MORE MILK.

A cow being milked.
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If farmers have a good relationship with their cows—meaning they give them names and show enough affection—they can produce more milk than their lonely counterparts. A 2009 study from Newcastle University found that cows who are more comfortable around humans are less stressed when milked. When cows are stressed, they produce cortisol, a hormone that inhibits milk production.  Another plus side of a happy cow-human relationship: farmers are less likely to get injured on the job (see fact #1).

9. INTO THE WOODS USED A REAL COW.

James Corden on stage in a white jacket
Kevin Winter, Getty Images for NARAS

For the 2014 film, director Rob Marshall wanted to use a real, live cow instead of depending on CGI. James Corden, who played the Baker and spent plenty of time with his bovine costar, admitted that things didn't always go smoothly: "You just don't know what it's like when you're doing a scene, and Meryl Streep is giving a phenomenal performance in only the way she can and it's scuppered by just 'Moooooooo,'" he recalled, adding, "That cow was the biggest diva on this set."

10. COWS PRODUCE METHANE, BUT DON'T BLAME THEM FOR GLOBAL WARMING.

Cows in a rounded milking station.
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Even though cattle produce plenty of methane during digestion, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) still considers the animals' contribution to global warming our fault, "because humans raise these animals for food and other products." In other words, this is a classic case of "He who smelt it, dealt it."

This story originally ran in 2015.

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Mark Ralston, AFP/Getty Images
How a Hairdresser Found a Way to Fight Oil Spills With Hair Clippings
Mark Ralston, AFP/Getty Images
Mark Ralston, AFP/Getty Images

The Exxon Valdez oil tanker made global news in 1989 when it dumped millions of gallons of crude oil into the waters off Alaska's coast. As experts were figuring out the best ways to handle the ecological disaster, a hairdresser from Alabama named Phil McCroy was tinkering with ideas of his own. His solution, a stocking stuffed with hair clippings, was an early version of a clean-up method that's used at real oil spill sites today, according to Vox.

Hair booms are sock-like tubes stuffed with recycled hair, fur, and wool clippings. Hair naturally soaks up oil; most of the time it's sebum, an oil secreted from our sebaceous glands, but it will attract crude oil as well. When hair booms are dragged through waters slicked with oil, they sop up all of that pollution in a way that's gentle on the environment.

The same properties that make hair a great clean-up tool at spills are also what make animals vulnerable. Marine life that depends on clean fur to stay warm can die if their coats are stained with oil that's hard to wash off. Footage of an otter covered in oil was actually what inspired Phil McCroy to come up with his hair-based invention.

Check out the full story from Vox in the video below.

[h/t Vox]

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Bristly
A New Chew Toy Will Help Your Dog Brush Its Own Teeth
Bristly
Bristly

Few pet owners are willing to sit down and brush their pet's teeth on a regular basis. (Most of us can barely convince ourselves to floss our own teeth, after all.) Even fewer pets are willing to sit calmly and let it happen. But pet dental care matters: I’ve personally spent more than $1000 in the last few years dealing with the fact that my cat’s teeth are rotting out of her head.

For dog owners struggling to brush poor Fido’s teeth, there’s a slightly better option. Bristly, a product currently being funded on Kickstarter, is a chew toy that acts as a toothbrush. The rubber stick, which can be slathered with doggie toothpaste, is outfitted with bristles that brush your dog’s teeth as it plays.

A French bulldog chews on a Bristly toy.
Bristly

Designed so your dog can use it without you lifting a finger, it’s shaped like a little pogo stick, with a flattened base that allows dogs to stabilize it with their paws as they hack at the bristled stick with their teeth. The bristles are coated in a meat flavoring to encourage dogs to chew.

An estimated 80 percent of dogs over the age of 3 have some kind of dental disease, so the chances that your dog could use some extra dental attention is very high. In addition to staving off expensive vet bills, brushing your dog's teeth can improve their smelly breath.

Bristly comes in three sizes as well as in a heavy-duty version made for dogs who are prone to ripping through anything they can get their jaws around. A Bristly stick costs $29 and is scheduled to start shipping in October. Get it here.

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