How Every Shopping Mall in America Ended Up Looking the Same

iStock
iStock

It doesn't matter where the structure is located: You can depend on the pleasantly disorienting architecture of any given shopping mall in the U.S. to look the same as that of the one in your hometown. As this video from Origin of Everything explains, there's a reason for the lack of variation in mall design, and it can be traced back to 1950s Middle America.

In 1952, an Austrian architect named Victor Gruen was commissioned to plan the country's first-ever indoor shopping center. The Southdale Center in Edina, Minnesota, featured walls lined with storefronts, and located at the center of the building was an open court with fountains, plants, and art where people could congregate. The design was so well-received that architects were quick to copy it when building indoor malls in different suburban areas around the country. Gruen's vision was so widely used that it eventually become the standard.

There's another design aspect that's pervasive in shopping malls: The buildings are laid out in a way that causes shoppers to lose their sense of time and geography. This hypnotic effect is named the "Gruen Transfer," which got its name from the architect.

You can check out the full origin story of shopping malls in the video below.

[h/t Origin of Everything]

Here's How Much it Would Cost to Build Hogwarts in Real Life

Warner Home Video
Warner Home Video

At some point, every Harry Potter fan has dreamed of going to Hogwarts. But a lack of magical ability isn't the only reason that the School of Witchcraft and Wizardry will have to remain in the realm of fantasy. Even recreating the physical structure would be nearly impossible in real life ... unless you're a billionaire looking to burn a lot of cash.

​BigRentz, an online marketplace for renting construction equipment, recently calculated the costs of building various fictional locations, such as Batman's Bat Cave, The Wall from Game of Thrones, and you guessed it—Hogwarts. And it turns out, magical castles are even more expensive than you might think.

According to the company's calculations, the castle itself would cost $169,740,000. Built in the style of Windsor Castle, Hogwarts stretches over 414,000 square feet. The Great Hall, which measures 5800 square feet, would alone cost a whopping $870,000.

Moving beyond the castle walls, the eight greenhouses would cost $175,000, and Hagrid's hut would come in at $400,000. Building the Quidditch pitch would cost another $1,031,980. And for the One-Eyed Witch Passage running between Hogwarts and Honeydukes? A full $2,490,000.

In total, BigRentz calculates that Hogwarts's construction bill would come to a whopping $174.5 million. And that's just construction costs. The cost of furnishing, supplying, and running the school—where tuition is free—would add significantly to that figure.

New LEGO Sets Let You Recreate the Iconic Skylines of San Francisco and Paris

In 2016, LEGO began releasing architecture-themed sets that let toy-loving designers recreate the world’s most famous skylines in their own homes, beginning with re-creations of New York, Venice, and Berlin. And now, the company is adding Paris and San Francisco to the mix, according to Archinect.

The new LEGO Architecture kit for Paris will feature the Eiffel Tower and Arc de Triomphe (both already available as stand-alone skyscraper kits) as well as the Louvre, the Tour Montparnasse, and other famous buildings. The LEGO San Francisco kit features the Golden Gate Bridge, the Transamerica Pyramid, Coit Tower, 555 California (formerly the Bank of America Center), Alcatraz Island, and the new Salesforce Tower, which recently became the city’s tallest building.

LEGO sets of the Paris and San Francisco skylines
LEGO

No doubt residents of both cities will have some gripes about which buildings were included and which were nixed from the kits. The Tour Montparnasse, in particular, was so deeply loathed upon its completion in the 1970s that the city of Paris promptly imposed a strict height restriction on buildings taller than 11 stories. Meanwhile, many San Francisco residents are still adjusting to the sight of the Salesforce Tower, which opened in 2018—it has been called “an atrocious spectacle,” its height described as “really offensive.”

You can check out all the kits from LEGO’s Architecture line here. Keep an eye out for the San Francisco and Paris versions starting early next year.

[h/t Architect]

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