Very Polite Canadian Belugas Have Made Friends With a Lone Narwhal

Baleines En Direct, YouTube
Baleines En Direct, YouTube

It’s hard to resist the cute factor of cross-species friendship. And so it’s with great joy that we report that Canada’s beluga whales appear to be just as polite as the rest of their countrymen when it comes to making friends with other species. One pod of belugas seems to have adopted a stray narwhal, according to the CBC.

The narwhal, captured in drone footage taken by researchers from the Canadian marine conservation nonprofit GREMM, has been spotted three years in a row swimming closely with a pod of young, mostly male beluga whales in the St. Lawrence estuary in Québec. The narwhal seems to exhibit beluga behaviors like blowing bubbles, and acts playful with the rest of the group. The same whale was spotted swimming with belugas in the area in 2016 and 2017, according to photo comparisons.

The sighting is notable because it took place more than 600 miles south of normal narwhal territory. The Arctic whales typically don’t venture farther south than Ungava Bay, located at the northern edge of Québec east of Hudson Bay.

In a post on GREMM’s site Whales Online, the researchers behind the footage speculate that climate change might make these sights more regular. The beluga and the narwhal both belong to the same cetacean family, Monodontidae, and as the waters in the Arctic warm, the two species’ territories might start to overlap more frequently. This could eventually lead to whale hybrids, even, similar to how shrinking sea ice has brought polar bears and grizzlies together more often, leading to interbreeding. This narwhal may have strayed far from his normal territory, losing track of his own kind before taking up with this band of friendly young whales.

[h/t CBC]

The 10 Fastest Animals in the World

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iStock

Though humans love to assign superlatives—smartest, fastest, strongest—to the creatures of the animal kingdom, those attributes are, in practice, pretty difficult to measure. There are stories of sailfish traveling at 68 mph, for example, but they date to the 1940s and '50s; since then, scientists have determined that anything faster than 33 mph is likely impossible and would lead to "destructive consequences for fin tissues." Old record breaking numbers might be inflated by everything from high wind speeds to inaccurate methodology—not to mention the difficulty of determining the top speed of animals that may or may not be going full out when measured, or the lack of measuring all animals all the time (which means that there still might be record breakers out there). But of the measurements that have been done—and with those caveats in mind—scientists have determined that these 10 creatures are good candidates for the fastest animals on Earth.

10. QUARTER HORSE // 55 MPH

A tan-colored horse running with its mane flying out behind it.
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At the lower end of the list there are several animals that run around the same speed. One of these is the quarter horse, which is generally faster than its more famous thoroughbred relatives—at least over short distances like a quarter mile. And the differences can be pronounced: One study found that over various races of various distances the quarter horse averaged 45 miles per hour, while the thoroughbred averaged only 35 mph—although the thoroughbred generally ran longer races. More impressively, the quarter horse was able to manage over 55 mph near the end of the race [PDF].

9. SPRINGBOK // 60 MPH

A springbok jumping high above yellow grass.
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According to recent research, the black wildebeest has unusual muscle fibers that allow it to run at high speeds for long distances. It's thought that the springbok—which is related to the wildebeest—may also have these fibers, which allows them to escape predators on the African Savannah.

8. PRONGHORN // APPROXIMATELY 40-62 MPH

A pronghorn running.
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The pronghorn is frequently cited as the second fastest land animal on Earth, although many of those speed estimates are based on studies from the 1940s [PDF], when researchers proposed they could run at around 60 mph. Other observations have put pronghorns running almost seven miles in just 10 minutes, which works out to 40 mph.

7. ANNA'S HUMMINGBIRD // 61 MPH

An Anna's hummingbird in flight.
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This little critter can travel at 61 mph for short distances during mating dives. That fact alone is impressive, but this hummingbird is a good candidate for fastest vertebrate by body lengths per second. According to a 2009 paper, it can reach speeds of 385 body lengths per second (that figure doesn't factor in the avian's .59-inch bill; factoring that in reduces the speed to around 320 bl/s). By comparison, the space shuttle reentering the atmosphere travels at around 207 bl/s. For a blue whale to match this hummingbird's relative speed, it would have to circle the entire planet in about an hour.

6. CHEETAH // 65 MPH

A cheetah running.
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The top speed of a cheetah is extremely difficult to determine. One of the fastest reliable records was obtained by a conservationist and the cheetah he'd raised. He attached some meat behind his vehicle and took off, and the cat gave chase, clocking approximately 64 mph over the trials. Meanwhile, a cheetah from the Cincinnati Zoo managed 61 mph in 2012. But these numbers aren't indicative of wild cheetah speed: When scientists put GPS collars on wild cheetahs, they found that although one reached 59 mph, the average top speed was just 33 mph, because it's easier to maneuver at slower speeds.

5. COMMON SWIFT // 70 MPH

A common swift flying.
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Many sources claim that the fastest bird in level flight is the white-throated needletail, sometimes called the spine-tailed swift. But there's no evidence for the methodology behind determining the record, so it's rarely considered valid. So this spot belongs to another swift: One specimen of common swift was observed flying at almost 70 mph.

4. GRAY-HEADED ALBATROSS // APPROXIMATELY 80 MPH

A gray-headed albatross flying.
iStock

The official Guinness World Record for fastest bird in level flight, however, doesn't go to the common swift. It goes to the gray-headed albatross, specifically one gray-headed albatross that got caught in an Antarctic storm. The paper detailing this record holder explained that "typical air speed of small albatrosses flying with a tail wind is [20±9 miles per hour], that speed being relatively constant with increasing wind force" and noted that the bird seemed to have a 40 to 50 mph tailwind. Audubon summarized this as "the equivalent of avian steroids."

3. HYBOMITRA HINEI WRIGHTI // APPROXIMATELY 90 MPH (WE THINK)

A horse fly sitting on a rock.
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According to an article published in Discover in 2000, an entomologist at the University of Florida attempted to recreate the mating behavior of the Hybomitra hinei wrighti horsefly. Males of this species chase and catch the females, and together they fall to the ground. To simulate this, the researcher fired a plastic pellet from an air rifle; the male horsefly chased the pellet, reaching speeds of at least 90 mph. Since then, little research has been done on the subject, and the result is noted as being "a noteworthy record" in "the unrefereed literature."

2. BRAZILIAN FREE-TAILED BATS // 100 MPH (MAYBE)

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According to a 2016 paper, all seven of the Brazilian free-tailed bats studied traveled faster than 55 mph. Five hit almost 70 mph and one flew 100 miles per hour, making it potentially the fastest flying animal in the world. Some scientists that spoke to New Scientist were skeptical of the record, however, saying that the bats may have had gravity or wind assists, but the authors of the study expressed confidence in their results.

1. PEREGRINE FALCON // 200+ MPH

A peregrine falcon flying.
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It's often said that the peregrine falcon can fly around 200 mph, which isn't the entire story. In level flight, the peregrine falcon is usually thought to max out at 40 to 60 mph—fast, but not ridiculously so. It reaches its top speed by falling in a specialized hunting dive called a stoop.

(This may seem like a bit of a cheat—extreme human skydivers can go considerably faster, and if diving speed for all other creatures were counted, this list would be almost entirely birds. A paper published in 2001 [PDF] looked at several dive speeds of just passerine birds and found a barn swallow that dived at 117 mph, a yellow wagtail diving at 118, and a pied flycatcher diving at 120 mph.)

For years, there was suspicion of this top speed, and in the 1990s, some researchers pegged the birds at a more reasonable stoop speed of 90 miles per hour. It wasn't until the 2000s that a researcher began skydiving with a peregrine falcon. Together they were diving at speeds well in excess of 200 mph. But because this is a dive, the title of fastest animal on Earth is still open to debate.

People Really Do Feel For Dogs More Than Humans

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iStock

If you have a harder time empathizing with human suffering than with pets in peril, you’re not alone. According to a study published earlier this year in Society & Animals, humans may project more pity when a dog is perceived to be in trouble than when a person is ailing under similar circumstances.

To assess whether people were more concerned with dogs than with their fellow Homo sapiens, researchers at Northwestern University gathered 240 undergraduate subjects between the ages of 18 and 23 and gave them a series of fictitious newspaper stories about a senseless attack. In all of the stories, the victim was hit with a baseball bat, suffered a broken leg and lacerations, and was found unconscious by first responders.

While those details remained consistent, researchers randomized the text so it would mention one of four victims: an adult, a 1-year-old infant, a 6-year-old dog, or a puppy. (Yes, this study used the premise of a baby being pummeled with a bat. All in the name of science.)

The researchers suspected that the victims' age, not species—where a younger age would indicate a greater degree of vulnerability—would determine participants' empathy for them. Using questions to measure their empathy levels on a numerical scale from seven (little empathy) to 112 (a lot of empathy), the organizers then quizzed subjects on how they felt about each of the cases. They were most upset by the attacks on the infant, followed by the puppy and older dog. The adult human, while considered tragic, scored lowest. "Age makes a difference for empathy toward human victims, but not for dog victims," the researchers wrote.

Female participants, who made up almost three-quarters of the study group, were also found to be much more sympathetic toward all of the victims than male participants.

The authors say the results were borne out, in part, of the perceived helplessness of the victims, regardless of whether they were puppies or children. In the end, one thing is reasonably certain: We're just as concerned about our fur babies as we are with young humans.

[h/t Travel + Leisure]

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