8 Recipes to Make With Fruit and Vegetable Scraps

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iStock

Each year, Americans toss roughly one-fifth of the groceries they buy into the trash. Some of the waste is food that's been left to spoil, but a lot of it consists of ingredients that could be turned into wholesome meals with a little creativity. Next time you have fruit and vegetable scraps on your cutting board, set them aside. You'll need them to make these recipes.

1. STRAWBERRY TOP-INFUSED WATER

Strawberries in water.
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If you want to squeeze every last drop of flavor out of your strawberries, save the leafy tops. You may not be able to eat them whole, but you can use them to brew a refreshingly sweet beverage. Just drop a handful or two of tops into a jar, fill it with water, and let it sit for about an hour. That’s enough time for the strawberry flavor to infuse into water, making it taste subtly sweet without a bunch of added sugar.

2. PICKLED WATERMELON RINDS

Pickled watermelon rinds in jars.
snickclunk, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

A little time and attention can turn a tough, inedible watermelon rind into a delectable salad or side. After eating or saving the flesh of a watermelon, Alton Brown says to peel the dark-green skin off the rind and slice it into 1-inch cubes. Bring a syrup of water, vinegar, sugar, and spices to a boil and pour the liquid over the rind pieces. After the mixture has had a chance to cool, add it to a jar and give it time to cool further at room temperature. The pickles will keep in your refrigerator long after watermelon season has ended.

3. BROCCOLI STALK FRIES

Broccoli stalk cut in half.
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Most broccoli recipes focus on the pretty, dark-green florets on top of the plant, but the stalks can be just as tasty if you treat them right. Once you peel the tough outer layer off the stems you can use them in almost any recipe that calls for broccoli. The food blog What’s Cooking Good Looking recommends cutting them into spears to make broccoli stalk fries. Drizzle them with olive oil and sprinkle with cornmeal, salt, and seasonings to give them a crunchy coating. Bake your fries in a 400°F oven for 30 minutes, or until golden-brown, and serve them with the dipping sauce of your choice.

4. CRISPY ROASTED POTATO PEELS

Crispy potato skins.
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As is often the case with fruit and vegetable skins, the peel of a potato is packed with nutrients. It also lends itself well to crisping, making it the perfect snack food to prepare at home. After making a big batch of mashed potatoes, take your saved potato skins, toss them with oil and seasonings, and roast them in a 400°F oven for 15 to 20 minutes. The result tastes like French fries, but only the dark and crispy bits (a.k.a. the best parts).

5. VEGETABLE STOCK

Vegetable stock in pot.
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Bone broth is all the rage, but you don’t need animal products to create a rich and flavorful stock. Save all the vegetable scraps you can’t repurpose into other dishes and simmer them in a pot of water for about an hour or so to make a stock you can use in all your vegan recipes. There are no rules here: Corn cobs, onion tops, asparagus ends, carrot peels, garlic skins, and parsley stems are all fair game.

6. CANDIED CITRUS PEELS

Candied orange peel in jar.
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If you have a sweet tooth, save up your lemon, orange, and grapefruit peels. According to this recipe from Martha Stewart, some sugar is all you need to make these colorful scraps into fruit candy. After slicing the peels into strips, boil them for about 10 minutes. Remove them from the water with a slotted spoon and allow them to dry on a wire rack. Create your syrup by boiling one cup of water with one cup of sugar and add in your peels, letting them stew for eight to 10 minutes. Remove the strips from the liquid and let them dry fully before tossing them in granulated sugar. The chewy, citrusy morsels taste great dipped in dark chocolate, baked into cookies, or eaten as they are.

7. CARROT TOP PESTO

Pesto in cup with bread and pasta.
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You really can make pesto out of any leafy green—even carrot tops. If you know how to make traditional pesto, just swap out the basil for carrot scraps and proceed as usual. In a food processor, pulse together the tops, garlic, a nut like cashews, and an herb like parsley for brightness. Once all the ingredients have been incorporated, slowly drizzle olive oil into your processor while continuing to blend. Finish by mixing in parmesan and salt. You can slather your sauce onto sandwiches, stir it into pasta, or use it as a dip for the carrots the tops came from.

8. PUMPKIN SEED GRANOLA

Granola in a bowl.
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Every Halloween season, countless families cut open pumpkins and hollow them out only to toss their guts in the garbage. Next time you carve a jack-o’-lantern, don’t forget about the seeds: They’re edible and can be used to add crunch to both sweet and savory dishes. For an especially pumpkin seed-forward recipe, try making this granola from the blog Little Vienna. Start by combining the seeds with chopped almonds, sunflower seeds, salt, and cinnamon. Whisk together honey and oil and toss this with the seed and nut mixture, and bake in a sheet pan at 350°F for 15 to 20 minutes, turning the granola halfway through. Sprinkle on dried cranberries once it's out of the oven.

9 Other Things That Happened on July 4

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iStock/LPETTET

Of course we know that July 4 is Independence Day in the U.S. But lots of other things have happened on that date as well. Here are just a few of them:

1. Three former presidents died.

On July 4, 1826, John Adams and Thomas Jefferson—America's second and third presidents, respectively—both passed away. The two politicians had a love-hate relationship, and Adams's last words were supposedly, "Thomas Jefferson survives." (He didn't know that Jefferson had passed away a few hours earlier.) Exactly five years later, on July 4, 1831, fifth U.S. President James Monroe died in New York City.

2. Henry David Thoreau moved to Walden Pond.

On July 4, 1845, Henry David Thoreau began his two-year living experiment at Walden Pond, near Concord, Massachusetts.

3. Alice Liddell first heard the story of Alice in Wonderland.

On July 4, 1862, little Alice Liddell listened to a story told by Lewis Carroll during a boat trip on the Thames ... it would later become, of course, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. It was published exactly three years later—on July 4, 1865.

4. Two famous advice columnists were born.

On July 4, 1918, twin sisters Esther Pauline and Pauline Esther Friedman were born. Today they're better known as Ann Landers and Dear Abby.

5. George Steinbrenner came into the world.

On July 4, 1930, future Yankees owner George Steinbrenner was born (and presumably fired the doctor immediately).

6. Lou Gehrig delivered his retirement speech.

On July 4, 1939, Lou Gehrig gave his famous retirement speech at Yankee Stadium after being diagnosed with ALS. He tells the crowd that he considers himself "the luckiest man on the face of the earth."

7. The Zodiac Killer killed for the first time. (As far as we know.)

On July 4, 1968, the Zodiac Killer murdered his first victims (that we know of) at Lake Herman Road in Benicia, California.

8. Koko was born.

On July 4, 1971, Koko, the sign-language gorilla, was born.

9. Bob Ross passed away.

On July 4, 1995, Bob Ross died, and all over the world, Happy Little Trees were a little less happy.

This list first ran in 2008 and was updated for 2019.

12 Facts About Diabetes Mellitus

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iStock/mthipsorn

Thirty million Americans—about 9 percent of the country's population—are living with diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes. This chronic condition is characterized by sustained high blood sugar levels. In many patients, symptoms can be managed with insulin injections and lifestyle changes, but in others, the complications can be deadly. Here's what you need to know about diabetes mellitus.

1. There are three types of diabetes.

In healthy people, the pancreas produces enough of the hormone insulin to metabolize sugars into glucose and move the glucose into cells, where it's used for energy.

But people with type 2 diabetes—the most common form of the disease, accounting for about 95 percent of cases—either can't produce enough insulin to transport the sugars, or their cells have become insulin-resistant. The result is a buildup of glucose in the blood (a.k.a. high blood sugar or hyperglycemia). Type 2 diabetes typically develops in adults.

Type 1 diabetes, also known as juvenile diabetes, makes up the remaining 5 percent of chronic cases and most often develops in children and young adults. With this condition, the initial problem isn’t blood sugar levels, but insulin production: The pancreas can’t make enough insulin to process even normal amounts of glucose. The sugar builds up as a result, leading to dangerous concentrations in the bloodstream.

The third form, gestational diabetes, only afflicts pregnant people who weren’t diabetic before their pregnancy. The mother's blood glucose levels usually spike around the 24th week of pregnancy, but with a healthy diet, exercise, and insulin shots in some cases, diabetes symptoms usually can be managed. Blood sugar levels tend to return to normal in patients following their pregnancies.

2. The mellitus in diabetes mellitus means "honey sweet."

Around 3000 years ago, ancient Egyptians described a condition with diabetes-like symptoms, though it wasn't called diabetes yet. It took a few hundred years before the Greek physician Araetus of Cappodocia came up with the name diabetes based on the Greek word for "passing through" (as in passing a lot of urine, a common diabetes symptom). English doctor Thomas Willis tacked on the word mellitus, meaning "honey sweet," in 1675, building on previous physicians' observations that diabetic patients had sweet urine. Finally, in 1776, another English physician named Matthew Dobson confirmed that both the blood and urine of diabetes patients were made sweeter by high levels of glucose in their blood.

3. The cause of one type of diabetes is well understood; the other, not so much.

A person’s lifestyle is a key predictor of developing type 2 diabetes. Factors like being overweight or obese, consuming a high-calorie diet, smoking, and seldom exercising contribute to the risk. Foods and drinks that are high in sugar—soda, candy, ice cream, dessert— may contribute to hyperglycemia, but any food that’s high in calories, even if it's not sweet, can raise blood sugar levels.

In contrast to these well-established factors, medical experts aren’t entirely sure what causes type 1 diabetes. We do know that type 1 is an autoimmune disease that develops when the body attacks and damages insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Some scientists think that environmental factors, like viruses, may trigger this immune response.

4. Family history also plays a role in diabetes risk.

If a parent or sibling has type 2 diabetes, you are predisposed to developing pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle habits explain some of these incidences, since family members may share similar diets and exercise habits. Genetics also play a role, but just because one close relative has diabetes does not mean you're destined to. Research conducted on identical twins, which share identical genes, showed that the pairs have discordant risk. Among twins in which one has type 1 diabetes, the other has only a 50 percent chance of developing it; for type 2, the risk for the second twin is 75 percent at most.

5. Racial minorities are at a higher risk for developing diabetes.

Many racial minority groups in the U.S. have a higher chance of developing type 2 diabetes. Black Americans, Latino Americans, Native Americans, Pacific Islanders, and some groups of Asian Americans are more likely to have pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes than white Americans. This can be partly explained by the fact that some of these groups also have higher rates of obesity, which is one of the primary risk factors of type 2 diabetes. Socioeconomics may also play a role: One study shows that people with diabetes living in poverty are less likely to visit diabetes clinics and receive proper testing than their middle-income counterparts. According to another study, diabetic people without health insurance have higher blood sugar, blood pressure, and cholesterol rates than insured diabetics. Genetics, on the other hand, don’t appear to contribute to these trends.

6. Diabetes is one of the world's deadliest diseases.

With proper management, people with diabetes can live long, comfortable lives. But if the disease isn’t treated, it can have dire consequences. Diabetics make up the majority of people who develop chronic kidney disease, have adult-onset blindness, and need lower-limb amputations. In the most serious cases, diabetes leads to death. The condition is one of the deadliest diseases in the world, killing more people than breast cancer and AIDS combined.

7. Millions of Americans are pre-diabetic.

According to the CDC, 84 million adults living in the U.S. are pre-diabetic: Their blood sugar is higher than what’s considered safe, but hasn't yet reached diabetic level. In pre-diabetic patients, blood glucose levels after eight hours of fasting fall between 100 and 125 milligrams per deciliter, and diabetic levels are anything above that. People with pre-diabetes are not just at a greater risk for type 2 diabetes, but also for heart disease and stroke. Fortunately, people who are diagnosed with pre-diabetes can take steps to eat a healthier diet, increase physical activity, and test their blood glucose level several times a day to control the condition. In some cases, doctors will prescribe drugs like metformin that make the body more receptive to the insulin it produces.

8. After climbing for decades, rates of diabetes incidence are declining.

In the U.S., the rate of new diagnoses skyrocketed 382 percent between 1988 and 2014. Globally, 108 million people had diabetes in 1980, but by 2014 that number was 422 million.

But thanks to nationwide education and prevention efforts, the trend has reversed in the U.S., according to the CDC. Since peaking in 2009, the number of new diabetes cases in America has dropped by 35 percent. In that same timeframe, the number of people living with diagnosed diabetes in the U.S. has plateaued, suggesting people with the condition are living longer.

9. The first successful treatment for type 1 diabetes occurred in 1922.

Prior to the 20th century, type 1 diabetes was usually fatal. Diabetic ketoacidosis—a toxic buildup of chemicals called ketones, which arise when the body can no longer use glucose and instead breaks down other tissues for energy—killed most patients within a year or two of diagnosis. In searching for way to save children with juvenile (type 1) diabetes, Canadian physician Frederick Banting and medical student Charles Best built on the work of earlier researchers, who had demonstrated that removing the pancreas from a dog immediately caused diabetes symptoms in the animal. Banting and Best extracted insulin from dog pancreases in University of Toronto professor J.J.R. Macleod's lab. After injecting the insulin back into dogs whose pancreases had been removed, they realized the hormone regulated blood sugar levels. On January 11, 1922, they administered insulin to a human patient, and further refined the extract to reduce side effects. In 1923, Banting and Macleod received the Nobel Prize in Medicine for their work.

10. A pioneering physicist discovered the difference between type and and type 1 diabetes.

In the 1950s, physicist Rosalyn Yalow and her research partner Solomon Berson developed a method for measuring minute amounts of substances in blood. Inspired by Yalow's husband's struggle with diabetes, Yalow focused her research on insulin. Their "radioimmunoassay" technology revealed that some diabetes patients were still able to produce their own insulin, leading them to create two separate categories for the disease: “insulin-dependent” (type 1) and “non-insulin-dependent” (type 2). Prior to that discovery in 1959, there was no distinction between the two types. In 1977, Yalow won the 1977 Nobel Prize in Medicine for the radioimmunoassay, one of only 12 female Nobel laureates in medicine.

11. Making one insulin dose once required tons of pig parts.

Insulin is relatively easy to make today. Most of what's used in injections comes from a special non-disease-producing laboratory strain of E. coli bacteria that's been genetically modified to produce insulin, but that wasn't always the case. Until about 40 years ago, 2 tons of pig pancreases were required to produce just 8 ounces of pure insulin. The pig parts were typically recycled from pork farms.

12. A quarter of diabetes patients don’t know they have it.

The symptoms of type 2 diabetes can develop for years before patients think to ask their doctor about them. These include frequent urination, unexplained thirst, numbness in the extremities, dry skin, blurry vision, fatigue, and sores that are slow to heal—signs that may not be a cause for concern on their own, but together can indicate a more serious problem. Patients with type 1 diabetes may also experience nausea, vomiting, and stomach pain.

While serious, the symptoms of diabetes are sometimes easy to overlook. That’s why 25 percent of people with the illness, 7.2 million in the U.S., are undiagnosed. And that number doesn’t even cover the majority of people with pre-diabetes who aren’t aware they’re on their way to becoming diabetic.

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