Benjamin Franklin and History's Most Dangerous Musical Instrument

In 1761, Benjamin Franklin attended a London concert and heard a musician play a set of water-tuned wine glasses. A mellow tone washed over the hall, leaving Franklin enchanted—and a little dismayed. The instrument sounded beautiful but looked unwieldy. One wrong move and all the glasses would topple. Inspired to improve the design, Franklin invented an alternative: a rod of rotating glass bowls called the "glass armonica." The instrument would sweep Europe by storm; Mozart even composed music for it.

Then it started killing people.

That's what doctors said, anyway. Decades earlier, anatomists had discovered how auditory nerves worked, and they began warning that too much music—like too much coffee or tea—could affect the nerves, causing headaches, fainting spells, and other medical problems.

These fears weren't totally new. Centuries earlier, Plato suggested banning certain musical modes, arguing that "novel fashions in music … [were] endangering the whole fabric of society." The Roman rhetorician Quintilian once argued that the timbre of some instruments could "emasculate the soul of all its vigor," driving men mad. By the arrival of the 19th century, wonky science helped this musical fear-mongering go mainstream—music was blamed for hysteria, premature menstruation, homosexuality, and even death. (In 1837, the controversial Penny Satirist magazine would report that a 28-year-old woman had died from listening to too much music.)

During this burgeoning period of anti-music mania, no instrument would be feared as much as Franklin's armonica. Critics said it overstimulated the brain; performers blamed it for dizziness, hallucinations, and palsy. In 1799, doctor Anthony Willich argued that the instrument deserved to be condemned, saying it caused "a great degree of nervous weakness." In 1808, people attributed the death of armonica virtuoso Marianne Kirchgessner to the instrument's eerie tones. Some psychiatrists went so far to say it drove listeners to suicide.

To say the least, the assault was a PR nightmare. Within decades, the feared instrument was relegated to the great big concert hall in the sky.

The Bittersweet Detail You Might Have Missed in Game of Thrones's Final Episode

Gwendoline Christie in "The Iron Throne," Game of Thrones's series finale
Gwendoline Christie in "The Iron Throne," Game of Thrones's series finale
Helen Sloan, HBO

While the final episode of Game of Thrones was no doubt divisive, many of us can agree that Brienne of Tarth deserved better. One of her last scenes in the episode, "The Iron Throne," showed the newly-appointed knight putting aside any anger she might’ve had toward Jaime Lannister to finish his page in the White Book. The part was bittersweet after watching Jaime leave Brienne to be with his sister, Cersei—making us wish things could’ve turned out differently for our favorite knight.

There is one bittersweet detail in that scene that you might’ve missed, however, which makes it all the more sad. According to NME, one Twitter user voiced that they thought they heard the song “I Am Hers, She is Mine” playing in the background, which Game of Thrones composer Ramin Djawadi considers to be the show’s wedding theme. Fans will remember the melody played when Robb Stark married Talisa back in season 2.

Djawadi has since confirmed it is the song, explaining to INSIDER why he included it:

"It's just a hint of what their relationship—if they had stayed together, if he was still alive—what it could have been. What they could have become. That's why I put that in there. I was amazed some people picked up on it. I was hoping people would go, 'Wait a minute, that's from season two.' And that was exactly my intent. I thought it would be very appropriate."

Though it’s only natural to imagine what could’ve happened if Jaime had stayed at Winterfell, let’s not forget that his honor (and character arc) went out the window when he headed back to King’s Landing.

[h/t NME]

This Poster Showcases Some of Rock 'N' Roll History's Most Iconic Moments

Courtesy of Dorothy
Courtesy of Dorothy

The world of rock 'n' roll has produced larger-than-life personalities and some of the most indelible moments of pop culture. From legendary groups like Queen and the Beatles to solo acts like Prince and Chuck Berry, rock artists have had cultural impact far beyond album releases—and the UK-based design shop Dorothy Studios has attempted to illustrate as many of these moments as possible.

To encapsulate the many on- and offstage moments that have helped shape rock history, Dorothy designers created "Inside Information: Vox AC30," a cutaway-style print that showcases famous people and events within the confines of a Vox AC30 guitar amp—a classic amplifier that soon became an industry standard. If you look closely, you can see everything from the Rolling Stones performing at the outdoor Stones in the Park music festival in July 1969 to Johnny Cash's live album performance at the Folsom State Prison in January 1968.

music poster
Courtesy of Dorothy

The poster print also has a helpful key that explains who, and what, each of the 40 separate illustrations showcase. In a way, the piece also serves as a handy beginner's guide for music fans looking to explore the depth of rock 'n' roll lore.

James Quail, creative director and partner at Dorothy, acted as the designer of the piece (as well as on this alternative music history poster) and explains that inspiration came from his love for diagrams. "The idea for the series came from thinking about memories of scientific cutaways from when I was in high school," Quail tells Mental Floss. "I loved diagrams which showed how machinery worked, or cut the Earth into portions and showing what was happening inside."

Quail also designed all of Dorothy's other pieces in their "Inside Information" collection. After Quail researches the genres being spotlighted and chooses the events he wants to feature, he works with Liverpudlian graphic designer Malik Thomas, who illustrates the print.

music poster
Courtesy of Dorothy

"We had the idea of taking real things apart but introducing levels of fantasy inside, so musical instruments might be filled with the artists and bands who used them, or film cameras filled with all the iconic moments from film that we could think of, and scenes playing out from a different perspective than we were used to seeing them," Quail says.

While the poster is chock-full of references, Quail admits there were still plenty of events they didn't have room for.

"Rock history is so rich with incident and anecdotes that to cover them all we would need a whole wall, but we picked a snapshot, hopefully covering off things that represent most eras, be it era-defining moments like the Beatles playing on The Ed Sullivan Show or the Sex Pistols playing Manchester's Lesser Free Trade Hall," Quail says. "Or moments that meant something big to us personally—like the first time I saw Nirvana playing 'Smells Like Teen Spirit.'"

music poster
Courtesy of Dorothy

This print, "Inside Information: Vox AC30," is available from Dorothy Studios for roughly $38. Other pieces in this collection including the movie-inspired "Director’s Cut," the portable music synthesizer "Minimoog," or the "Apple Macintosh," which chronicles the history of, well, Apple.

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