Do Flight Attendants Know When There's an Air Marshal on Their Plane?

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iStock.com/R9_RoNaLdO

Ron Wagner:

In my years as an airline pilot, every armed person boarding our aircraft had to be introduced to the cockpit crew—at least to the captain. The armed person was brought down the jetway by the gate agent ahead of general boarding. We would look at their ID and find out their seat number.

At a minimum, the senior flight attendant also knew so that if he or she somehow spotted the gun on the individual, they wouldn't freak out.

$98 MILLION VERSUS A .38 REVOLVER

I mostly flew the Eastern Shuttle between Washington and New York and we carried a lot of famous people who were under Secret Service or State Department protection—so those folks made armed guards common.

Armed guards were also common because we carried billions of dollars in cash. You can imagine that with fresh cash being printed in D.C., and with New York City being the financial capital of the country, a lot of money was moved up there. And with us leaving every hour, on the hour, they knew we could get it to New York City while the ink was still wet. (These days, with so many of our financial transactions being processed electronically, there's probably not nearly as much cash that's being moved between the two cities.)

In addition to being introduced to the armed agent, we were also told how much money was in the hold. It was always at least $50 million. The most common load was $70 million, comprised of 50 standard bags of $1.4 million each. The largest amount of money I ever transported was $98 million in cash, which was spread among 70 bags. (And this was back in the 1980s, when $98 million was a lot of money; it's just pocket change these days, right?)

Bottom line: it is illegal for any armed person to board a commercial U.S. airline without the captain's knowledge. (In 2014, USA Today reported that not all air marshals love this rule; they understand why they need to make their presence known to the captain, but worry that they could receive special treatment from the cabin crew that could give their position away.)

This post originally appeared on Quora. Click here to view.

Why Are There 10 Hot Dogs to a Pack But Only 8 Buns?

tacar/iStock via Getty Images
tacar/iStock via Getty Images

Watching competitive eating champion Joey Chestnut cram dozens of hot dogs down his throat would make anyone crave a grilled log of processed meat this summer. But shopping for hot dogs can be a confusing experience. The dogs are typically sold in packs of 10, but the buns are sold in packs of eight. What's behind this strange dog and bun inequality?

According to the National Hot Dog and Sausage Council—yes, there is a National Hot Dog and Sausage Council—there’s a good reason for the discrepancy. For starters, distributors of hot dogs are almost always different from manufacturers of baked goods like rolls. The hot dogs are sold in packs of 10 because producers of meat (or meat-like) products selected that quantity when hot dogs started to sell at retail grocery stores in the 1940s. Oscar Mayer, which led the charge into direct-to-consumer hot dog packaging, sold hot dogs by the pound in accordance with how meat is typically priced. Having 10 dogs that weighed 1.6 ounces each seemed like the ideal distribution of weight.

Bakeries, meanwhile, have standards of their own. Buns and sandwich rolls are usually sold eight to a pack because the baking trays for the elongated buns are typically sized to fit that number. Two sets of four buns come off the tray, which is the reason why buns are often still attached to one another when you open a bag.

These standards were created independently of one another: Bakeries weren’t too preoccupied with hot dogs when they were settling on a four-roll tray standard, and hot dog manufacturers weren’t thinking about how difficult it would be for bakeries to break from their conveyor system to offer 10 buns to a pack.

It can be frustrating if you buy just one or two packages of each, but if you’re hosting a big enough party, the uneven number doesn’t matter. You just need to buy five packages of buns and four packages of hot dogs to have 40 matching pairs. No complicated calculations required.

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When Are the Dog Days of Summer?

Dorottya_Mathe/iStock via Getty Images
Dorottya_Mathe/iStock via Getty Images

The official “dog days” of summer begin on July 3 and end on August 11. So how did this time frame earn its canine nickname? It turns out the phrase has nothing to do with the poor pooches who are forever seeking shade in the July heat, and everything to do with the nighttime sky.

Sirius, the Dog Star, is the brightest star in the sky. The ancient Greeks noticed that in the summer months, Sirius rose and set with the Sun, and they theorized that it was the bright, glowing Dog Star that was adding extra heat to the Earth in July and August.

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