PTSD Might Be Contagious

iStock.com/shironosov
iStock.com/shironosov

Traumatic events don’t just affect the people who experience them. They also affect the victim’s partner, parents, children, and friends. We know this intuitively, but Scientific American highlights new research showing that the impact of trauma goes even deeper: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) might be passed from person to person.

By describing the traumatic event to another person, a form of secondary PTSD can be "caught" by someone who is close to the trauma victim, such as a parent, spouse, or even a therapist or emergency responder. According to Scientific American, recent research suggests that 10 to 20 percent of people who have a close relationship with someone who has PTSD could develop the condition themselves. One study from 2013 found that nearly one in five healthcare workers who had been helping members of the military with PTSD had developed “secondary trauma” [PDF].

Some of the symptoms they experienced included intrusions, or mental images, flashbacks, or nightmares of the traumatic event. Other symptoms were sleep disorders, feelings of hopelessness, stress-induced hyperarousal, and an overreactive fight-or-flight response.

Similar studies revealed that emergency responders, social workers, trauma therapists, and the wives of former prisoners of war are also at risk. Although the spouses or partners of war veterans are often affected, research from 2017 showed that the parents of veterans seemed unaffected, while the children of veterans occasionally showed symptoms, but not severe ones.

The definition of the disorder has even been amended to reflect these findings. According to the updated Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, firsthand experience of a traumatic incident isn’t necessary to be diagnosed with PTSD.

Psychologist Judith Daniels of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands suggests there’s a physiological explanation for why secondhand trauma can seem so real and vivid to someone who never experienced the trauma itself directly. “The regions of the brain that proce[ss] visual imagery have a very strong overlap with regions that process imagined visual experience,” she tells Scientific American. It would seem that just hearing about the traumatic event is enough to produce PTSD-like symptoms.

Researchers also found that extremely empathetic people and people who don’t keep any “emotional distance” from the trauma victim (such as spouses) are at greater risk of developing secondary PTSD. That’s partly because they may internalize the trauma.

There may also be a genetic aspect that allows PTSD to be passed down from parent to child. A 2017 study suggests that one’s genetic biomarkers could denote a higher risk of PTSD, but researchers said further studies are needed to identify the specific genes involved, CNN reports.

[h/t Scientific American]

Airports Are Fighting Traveler Germs with Antimicrobial Security Bins

iStock/Chalaba
iStock/Chalaba

If you plan to do any air travel this summer, chances are you'll be negotiating a path riddled with bacteria. In addition to airport cabins being veritable Petri dishes of germs from the seat trays to the air nozzles, airport security bins are utterly covered in filth thanks to their passage through hundreds of hands daily. These bins are rarely sanitized, meaning that cold, flu, and other germs deposited by passengers are left for you to pick up and transmit to your mouth, nose, or the handle of your carry-on.

Fortunately, some airports are offering a solution. A new type of tray covered in an antimicrobial substance will be rolled out in more than 30 major U.S. airports this summer.

The bins, provided by Florida-based SecurityPoint Media, have an additive applied during the manufacturing process that will inhibit bacterial growth. The protective coating won't wear or fade over time.

Microban International, a company specializing in antimicrobial products, made the bins. According to the company, their antimicrobial protection works by disrupting the cellular function of the microorganism, making it unable to reproduce. As a result, surfaces tend to harbor less of a bacterial load than surfaces not treated with the solution.

While helpful, Microban is careful to note it's no substitute for regular cleaning and that its technology is not intended to stop the spread of disease-causing germs. In other words, while the bins may be cleaner, they're never going to be sterile.

If you're flying out of major airports in Denver, Nashville, or Tampa, you can expect to see the bins shortly. They'll carry the Microban logo. More airports are due to get shipments by early July.

[h/t Travel and Leisure]

Bad News: The Best Time of the Day to Drink Coffee Isn’t as Soon as You Wake Up

iStock.com/ThomasVogel
iStock.com/ThomasVogel

If you depend on coffee to help get you through the day, you can rest assured that you’re not the world's only caffeine fiend. Far from it. According to a 2018 survey, 64 percent of Americans said they had consumed coffee the previous day—the highest percentage seen since 2012.

While we’re collectively grinding more beans, brewing more pots, and patronizing our local coffee shops with increased frequency, we might not be maximizing the health and energy-boosting benefits of our daily cup of joe. According to Inc., an analysis of 127 scientific studies highlighted the many benefits of drinking coffee, from a longer average life span to a reduced risk for cancer, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and Parkinson’s disease.

Sounds great, right? The only problem is that the benefits of coffee might be diminished depending on the time of day that you drink it. Essentially, science tells us that it’s best to drink coffee when your body’s cortisol levels are low. That’s because both caffeine and cortisol cause a stress response in your body, and too much stress is bad for your health for obvious reasons. In addition, it might end up making you more tired in the long run.

Cortisol, a stress hormone, is released in accordance with your circadian rhythms. This varies from person to person, but in general, someone who wakes up at 6:30 a.m. would see their cortisol levels peak in different windows, including 8 to 9 a.m., noon to 1 p.m., and 5:30 to 6:30 p.m. Someone who rises at 10 a.m. would experience cortisol spikes roughly three hours later, and ultra-early risers can expect to push this schedule three hours forward.

However, these cortisol levels start to rise as soon as you start moving in the morning, so it isn’t an ideal time to drink coffee. Neither is the afternoon, because doing so could make it more difficult to fall asleep at night. This means that people who wake up at 6:30 a.m. should drink coffee after that first cortisol window closes—roughly between 9:30 a.m. and 11:30 a.m.—if they want to benefit for a little caffeine jolt.

To put it simply: "I would say that mid-morning or early afternoon is probably the best time," certified dietitian-nutritionist Lisa Lisiewski told CNBC. "That's when your cortisol levels are at their lowest and you actually benefit from the stimulant itself."

[h/t Inc.]

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