8 Facts About Carl Jung

Central Press/Getty Images
Central Press/Getty Images

Perhaps second only to Sigmund Freud—though he may have been reticent to admit it—Carl Jung (1875-1961) was a renowned Swiss psychologist who pioneered the idea of exploring a person’s interior life to better understand their behaviors. If you’ve ever been labeled an extrovert or introvert, you can thank Jung for that. Have a look at our analysis of this fascinating thinker.

1. HE WAS A LONER AS A CHILD.

Born to Paul and Emilie Jung on July 26, 1875 in Kesswil, Switzerland, Jung was said to have been a child who largely kept to himself. He had no siblings and his mother was an unreliable presence in the house; she suffered from a mental disorder and was institutionalized briefly when Jung was just 3 years old. Jung tended to internalize his emotions, turning to books on philosophy instead of following in his father’s footsteps by joining the clergy. He graduated from the University of Basel in 1900 and, later, the University of Zurich, earning both his M.D. and Ph.D.

2. HE PIONEERED THE “COMPLEX” THEORY OF PSYCHOLOGY.

While at the University of Zurich, Jung joined the staff at Burghölzli Asylum, where he first noticed patients who expressed different reactions when hearing certain words. Those reactions drove Jung to explore the idea of a “complex,” a condition experienced by people who could be profiled according to their subconscious fears of insecurity, inferiority, or superiority, among others. Jung believed he had both a "father complex" and a "mother complex," harboring feelings of resentment for both his father's passive personality and his mother's unpredictable behavior.

3. HE WAS INTERESTED IN THE OCCULT.

At the turn of the 20th century, Jung was drawn to unusual subjects for a psychologist. Jung looked to witchcraft, alchemy, folklore, and then-exotic yoga to explore his principles. Followers of Sigmund Freud criticized Jung for such activities, believing them to be outside the purview of science. Jung argued that so many people had devoted so much time to thinking about such things that it must make up a portion of the collective conscious and was worth studying.

4. FREUD HELPED BLACKBALL HIM.

Jung and Freud shared a fascination with the unconscious mind, an interest that led to a fruitful five-year working relationship between 1907 and 1912. But Jung raised Freud’s ire when he published a book, Psychology of the Unconscious, that contradicted some of Freud’s theories. (Freud was adamant that psychological issues stemmed from childhood sexual development; Jung agreed but argued humankind had a religious instinct that was just as influential.) The volume so offended Freud that he cut off contact with Jung and encouraged the rest of the psychoanalytic community to do the same. Undaunted, Jung continued to pursue his work.

5. HE WAS A CHRONIC WOMANIZER.

Jung was hardly one to respect the limits of the doctor-patient relationship. Despite his marriage to Emma Rauschenbach, whom he married in 1903 and had five children with, Jung was a notorious womanizer. He carried on with mistresses as well as patients—some during, and some after, their treatment. When Jung had an affair with medical student Sabina Spielrein, Emma told Spielrein's parents of the dalliance. Rather than feel shamed, Jung wrote to them and bluntly offered to stop seeing her if they paid him more for her counseling.

6. HE WROTE A DIARY THAT WAS KEPT HIDDEN FOR DECADES.

Jung’s fascination with peering inside the crevices of the mind led to a personal crisis of his own—one that some Jung scholars believe was flirting with insanity. In 1913, Jung began hearing voices and having visions. Jung later wrote that he would sometimes grip a table for fear he might be coming apart at the seams and even compared it to a drug trip. Instead of fighting it, Jung embraced it, trying to induce hallucinations to acknowledge whatever his unconscious mind might be trying to tell him. He charted his experiences in what he called the Red Book, an unkempt diary of thoughts, illustrations, and theories. The work was so personal that when Jung died in 1961, his family declined to allow anyone to see it. It was finally published in 2009.

7. HE HELPED INSPIRE ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS.

Though Jung has no direct involvement with the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous, the landmark support group for people struggling with substance abuse, he is widely credited with helping launch the idea of self-improvement through affirmations. In the early 1930s, a man named Rowland H. asked Jung for help with his excessive drinking. Jung believed a spiritual rather than behavioral transformation would be helpful in Rowland’s case, and he recommended he seek out the Oxford Group, then a popular religious movement in America. The Oxford Group practiced self-evaluation through acknowledging and correcting wrongs. Rowland then recommended the method to Bill W., a friend who had tried to treat his alcoholism via medicine. Through this baton-passing, Bill W. went on to found AA.

8. HE WROTE A BOOK ABOUT UFOS.

There is no aspect of the mind that failed to fascinate Jung. While his contemporaries were busy with dry volumes of psychoanalytic theory, Jung published a book titled Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies, in 1958. The book was neither a chronicle of Jung’s own sightings (he didn’t have any) nor an investigation into the credibility of such eyewitness testimony. Instead, Jung explored what might drive the psyche to entertain the idea of alien visitations and what those beliefs revealed about the subconscious mind. An editor for the New Republic hoped to quote Jung in advance of publication, but he declined, claiming that “being rather old, I have to economize my energies.” Jung died at the age of 85 in 1961.

9 Vintage Thanksgiving Side Dishes We Shouldn’t Bring Back

We all have that aunt—the one who’s been bringing her Miracle-Whip-bound pimiento-pea salad to Thanksgiving dinner since time immemorial. Although you may swear she got her recipe straight from the devil, it turns out that cheese-and-lime-Jell-O salads and their ilk were all the rage in her day. So it’s not (totally) her fault! To cut her a little slack, here are some examples of vintage Thanksgiving-themed recipes that will make her salad look like a perfectly golden-brown turkey.

1. CRANBERRY CANDLE SALAD

Best Foods Mayonnaise Ad 1960s with Jello Molds

Nothing complements the tart, refreshing flavor of cranberry sauce like some gelatin and salty, eggy mayonnaise. If that weren’t weird enough, this recipe also tells you to shove a real candle in there and then light it. Ostensibly, you’re supposed to eat around the melted wax, but we can’t be sure—maybe it’s considered a condiment.

2. CANDIED SWEET POTATOES WITH ANGOSTURA BITTERS

This recipe for candied sweet potatoes, which involves baking them in a mixture of butter, sugar, and angostura bitters, is probably either really good or really bad. It sort of makes sense, adding bitters to cut down on the sugar factor. Alternatively, you could just not make a candied version of something that already has the word sweet in its name.

3. CREAMED ONIONS

This once-popular Thanksgiving mainstay has been neglected over the last century, for perhaps obvious reasons. In some households, the idea was to pour creamed onions over the turkey, like gravy, to add a little moisture. Or possibly because eating a chunky mouthful of pearl onions and cream sauce by itself is gross.

4. TURKEY AND STUFFING ON JELL-O

Thanksgiving Jello Ad

There’s not much to this one, is there? It’s a pile of turkey and stuffing dumped on top of a cranberry orange Jell-O ring—sounds delicious!

5. WINTER CORN

This mixture of corn, sour cream, and bacon is sometimes found on Midwestern Thanksgiving tables. It’s mostly off-putting because its main ingredient is creamed corn. That said, creamed corn really needs all the help it can get, so adding bacon can only improve it.

6. SWEET AND SOUR TANG POPCORN (A.K.A. ASTRONAUT POPCORN)

Reportedly, this was a popular Thanksgiving dessert in the ’70s. The idea seems to be an offshoot of caramel corn, but … with Tang powder.

7. HOT DR. PEPPER

You gotta give the good folks at Dr. Pepper a few points for at least trying here. They noticed that soda was not often considered a cozy, comforting holiday drink, and they stepped up to the bat undaunted. Bold move.

8. FROZEN JELLIED TURKEY-VEGETABLE SALAD

There’s only one way to improve a dish as alluring as Jellied Turkey-Vegetable Salad, and that’s to stick it in the freezer. From the sound of the recipe—which combines cream of celery soup, salad dressing, diced turkey, vegetables, and gelatin—this is basically the inside of a turkey pot pie if it was served frozen. And also if it was square.

9. JELL-O FRUIT CORNUCOPIA

Sure, cornucopias were for holding food in olden times, but don’t you wish you could eat one? Well, guess what—your years of longing are finally over, because someone has made a Jell-O version of one with fruit trapped in it. You don’t even have to take the fruit out of the cornucopia this time—you can just pop the whole thing in your mouth. Dreams do come true.

10 Amazing Facts About Stan Lee

BEHROUZ MEHRI/AFP/Getty Images
BEHROUZ MEHRI/AFP/Getty Images

Comic book legend Stan Lee’s life was always an open book. The co-creator of some of the greatest superheroes and most beloved stories of all time, Lee—who passed away on November 12 at the age of 95—became just as mythical and larger-than-life as the characters in the panels. In 2015, around the time of Marvel’s 75th anniversary, Lee had the idea to reflect on his own life, as he said, “in the one form it has never been depicted, as a comic book … or if you prefer, a graphic memoir.”

The result, published by the Touchstone imprint of Simon & Schuster in 2015, was Amazing Fantastic Incredible: A Marvelous Memoir—which was written by Lee with Peter David and features artwork by cartoonist and illustrator Colleen Doran. Here are 10 things we learned about Lee.

1. HIS WIFE WAS ALSO HIS BARBER.

As a bit of a throwaway fact, Stanley Martin Lieber (Stan Lee) revealed the secret of his slicked back mane on the second page of his memoir. “My whole adult life, I’ve never been to a barber,” he wrote. “Joanie always cuts my hair.”

2. HIS CONFIDENCE CAME FROM HIS MOTHER.

Lee wrote that as a child he loved to read books by Mark Twain, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Jules Verne, H.G. Wells, and others, and his mother often watched him read: “I probably got my self-confidence from the fact that my mother thought everything I did was brilliant.”

3. YOUNG STAN LEE WROTE OBITUARIES.

Before writing about the fantastic lives of fictional characters, Lee wrote antemortem obituaries for celebrities at an undisclosed news office in New York. He said that he eventually quit that job because it was too “depressing.”

4. CAPTAIN AMERICA WAS HIS FIRST BIG BREAK.

A week into his job at Timely Comics, Lee got the opportunity to write a two-page Captain America comic. He wrote it under the pen name Stan Lee (which became his legal name) and titled it "Captain America Foils the Traitor’s Revenge." His first full comic script would come in Captain America Issue 5, published August 1, 1941.

5. HE WROTE TRAINING FILMS FOR THE ARMY WITH DR. SEUSS.

After being transferred from the army’s Signal Corps in New Jersey, Lee worked as a playwright in the Training Film Division in Queens with eight other men, including a few who went on to be very famous: Pulitzer Prize-winning author William Saroyan, cartoonist Charles Addams (creator of The Addams Family), director Frank Capra (Mr. Smith Goes to Washington [1939] and It’s a Wonderful Life [1946]) and Theodor Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss.

6. HE DEFIED THE COMICS CODE AUTHORITY WITH AN ANTI-DRUG COMIC.

In 1971, Lee received a letter from the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare asking him to put an anti-drug message in one of his books. He came up with a Spider-Man story that involved his best friend Harry abusing pills because of a break-up. The CCA would not approve the story with their seal because of the mention of drugs, but Lee convinced his publisher, Martin Goodman, to run the comic anyway.

7. AN ISSUE AT THE PRINTERS TURNED THE HULK GREEN.

The character was supposed to be gray, but according to Lee, the printer had a hard time keeping the color consistent. “So as of issue #2,” Lee wrote, “with no explanation, he turned green.”

8. HIS WIFE DESTROYED HIS PRIZED TYPEWRITER.

According to Lee, during an argument, Joanie destroyed the typewriter he used to write the first issues for characters including Spider-Man and The Fantastic Four. “This happened before eBay," he wrote. "Too bad. I could’ve auctioned the parts and made a mint.”

9. A FIRE DESTROYED HIS INTERVIEWS AND LECTURES.

When Lee moved his family to Los Angeles, he set up a studio in Van Nuys where he stored videotapes of his talks and interviews, along with a commissioned bust of his wife. The building was lost to a blaze that the fire department believed was arson, but no one was ever charged with the crime.

10. HIS FAVORITE MARVEL FILM CAMEO WAS BASED ON ONE FROM THE COMICS.

Beginning with the first Spider-Man film in 2002, Stan Lee has made quick cameos in Marvel films as a service to the fans. He said that his appearance in Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer (2007) was inspired by the story of Reed and Sue Richards’ wedding in Fantastic Four Annual Volume 1 #3, in which he and artist/writer Jack Kirby attempt to crash the ceremony but are thwarted.

A version of this story ran in 2015.

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