Antibodies in Llama Blood Might Eliminate the Need for Yearly Flu Shots

iStock.com/AllenSphoto
iStock.com/AllenSphoto

Getting your yearly flu shot is an important way to protect yourself against the latest strains of the virus. But the annual practice can also be annoying, as evidenced by the more than half of all Americans who skip it. Now, BBC reports that scientists may have discovered the key to a perennial preventative flu treatment hiding in an unlikely source: llama blood.

According to a new paper published in the journal Science, the tiny antibodies produced by llamas are better equipped to fight the influenza virus than the larger ones found in humans. When the flu virus enters your body, specialized white blood cells called B lymphocytes make antibodies to attack it; they glob onto proteins on the outside of the virus, marking it so the immune system knows what to eradicate. But this only works if the shape of the antibody fits the proteins on the outside of the virus. If the exterior of the flu virus has mutated since your last flu shot, your body may not be able to recognize and stop it.

Llama antibodies work a bit differently. They're much smaller than humans', which means they can reach the core of an influenza virus—a.k.a. the part that looks the same from strain to strain. If scientists can make a human antibody that functions the same way, they will essentially develop a one-size-fits-all treatment that could continue to be effective as years progress.

For their study, researchers from the Scripps Institute in California made a synthetic antibody that borrowed elements from some of the strongest flu antibodies produced in llama blood. After wrapping the antibodies' genetic information in a harmless virus and infecting flu-sickened mice with it, the flu virus was stopped in almost every case. Only one of the 60 flu strains that were tested persisted, and it was one that doesn't infect humans.

This flu "vaccine" isn't really a vaccine at all—it's more like gene therapy. Unlike current flu shots, it doesn't have to train the body's immune system to be effective, which would make it an especially appealing option for people with weakened immune systems like elderly patients. But human trials still need to be completed before the promise of a stronger, longer-lasting flu treatment becomes a possibility.

[h/t BBC]

FDA Is Warning Against Fecal Transplants After Person Dies From E. Coli Infection

iStock/artisteer
iStock/artisteer

Though it may sound gross, the benefits of a fecal transplant—taking the feces of one person and introducing it into the gastrointestinal tract of another—are promising for those suffering from a Clostridioides difficile infection. The tenacious infections are often the result of sustained antibiotic use, which can kill the patient's "good" gut bacteria and allow C. difficile to proliferate. As the theory goes, the “good” bacteria in feces transplanted from a healthy person may restore the infected person's microbiome and alleviate symptoms like life-threatening diarrhea.

The treatment, which is not FDA-approved, is risky. The FDA has announced that two people involved in a clinical trial recently received fecal transplants that contained drug-resistant bacteria, with one of them dying as a result.

According to The New York Times, the FDA did not offer details of either case, relating only that both patients were immunocompromised, which is one of the contraindications of receiving the transplant. The stool they received was believed to contain antibiotic-resistant E. coli bacteria.

As a result, the FDA is suspending a number of fecal transplant clinical trials until it can be determined how stool is being tested for contamination with potentially deadly bacteria and why the E. coli was not detected. The stool that infected both patients came from the same donor.

Fecal transplants are considered an experimental treatment for C. difficile infection when first-line treatment like antibiotics are ineffective. The fecal transplant is usually introduced to the digestive tract via pills or an infusion.

[h/t The New York Times]

7 Terrifying Historical Remedies for Migraine Headaches

George Marks/Getty Images
George Marks/Getty Images

Migraines are more than just splitting headaches. Migraine symptoms, which affect about one in seven people worldwide, can include throbbing pain on one side of the head, nausea, sensitivity to light and sound, and visual disturbances called auras. Today, several classes of drugs are prescribed to either prevent migraine headaches from happening or halt them once they’ve started. But in previous centuries, migraine treatments weren’t so convenient—or effective.

1. Bloodletting

Whether by scalpel or by leeches, bloodletting was the most common remedy for migraine headaches (and many other ailments) before the advent of modern medicine. Throughout most of history, Western physicians subscribed to the humoral theory, in which human health was governed by four fluids (humors) that must be kept in balance. Sickness was explained as an imbalance of humors, and bloodletting was thought to rebalance the system. The methods varied, though. In the case of migraine headaches, the Greek physician Aretaeus suggested sticking a barbed goose feather up the unfortunate patient’s nose and prodding around until blood flowed.

Even as late as the 18th century, bloodletting was still believed to help migraines. Swiss physician Samuel Auguste Tissot, who was the first to describe migraines as a discrete medical condition in the 1770s, recommended bleeding, better hygiene and diet, and drugs including infusions of orange leaves and valerian.

2. Garlic

The 11th-century physician Abu al-Qasim suggested sticking a clove of garlic into the migraine headache sufferer’s temple. He offered a handy recipe:

“Take a garlic; peel and cut at both extremities. Make an incision with a large scalpel in the temple and keep under the skin a cavity wide enough to introduce the garlic and to conceal it completely. Apply compresses and tighten, let it remain about 15 hours, then remove the device. Extract the garlic, leave the wound for two or three days, then apply cotton soaked in butter until it suppurates.”

Once the wound started oozing—which was considered a good sign—the physician would cauterize the incision with a hot iron. Cauterization was meant to prevent infection, although modern research has shown that it actually lowers the threshold for bacterial infections.

3. Cupping

Cupping—inverting hot glass vessels on the patients’ body—was thought to perform the same function as bloodletting. Prominent Dutch physician Nicolaes Tulp, depicted in Rembrandt’s 1632 painting The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, treated a migraine sufferer by cupping. She soon recovered.

A substance called cantharidin, a potent blistering agent secreted by the Meloidae family of beetles, was also applied as part of the cupping and blistering process to draw out bad humors. Unfortunately, if the cantharidin was left on too long, it could be absorbed into the body and cause painful urination, gastrointestinal and renal dysfunction, and organ failure. (Perhaps unrelatedly, cantharidin was also used as an aphrodisiac.)

4. Trepanation

One of the oldest types of surgery, trepanation is the practice of cutting away part of the cranium and exposing brain tissue to treat injuries or chronic conditions like migraine headaches. The 16th-century Dutch physician Petrus Forestus, who meticulously recorded the ailments and treatments of his patients, performed trepanation on a person with incurable migraines. In the brain tissue he found something he called a “black worm.” According to a 2010 study by neurologist Peter J. Koehler, the mass may have been a chronic subdural hematoma—a collection of blood between the surface of the brain and its outermost covering—and a possible cause of the patient’s agony.

5. Dead Moles

Ali ibn Isa al-Kahhal, the leading ophthalmologist of the medieval Muslim world, described more than 130 eye diseases and treatments in his groundbreaking monograph Tadhkirat al-kaḥḥālīn (The Notebook of the Oculists). While his descriptions of ocular anatomy were sound, he also touched on remedies for headaches, and here his prescriptions seem more suspect. To treat migraines, he suggested tying a dead mole to one’s head.

6. Electric Fish

Long before scientists fully understood the principles of electricity, ancient doctors recommended it as a remedy for migraines. Scribonius Largus, the court physician for the Roman emperor Claudius, saw that the torpedo fish—also known as the electric ray, native to the Mediterranean Sea among other areas—had the power to shock anyone who touched it. Largus and other doctors prescribed the shocks as cures for headache, gout, and prolapsed anus.

In the mid-18th century, a Dutch journal reported that the electric eel, found in South America, emitted even stronger shocks than the Mediterranean fish and were used for head pain. One observer wrote that headache sufferers “put one of their hands on their head and the other on the fish, and thereby will be helped immediately, without exception.”

7. Mud Foot-Baths

Compared to expired rodents, warm foot-baths must have sounded positively decadent to those afflicted with extreme pain. Nineteenth-century physicians suggested that migraine sufferers take the waters at Marienbad (now Mariánské Lázně) and Karlsbad (now Karlovy Vary), two spa towns in what is now the Czech Republic. While the mineral waters were useful for alleviating congestive headaches, mud foot-baths were believed to draw blood toward the feet and away from the head, calming the nervous system. “The foot-bath ought not to be taken too hot, and the feet should be rubbed one over the other while washing the mud off, and afterwards with a coarse towel. A brisk walk may be used to keep up the circulation,” suggested Prussian Army physician Apollinaris Victor Jagielski, M.D. in 1873.

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