Physicists Have Come Up With the 'Perfect Pizza Equation'

iStock.com/nickcurteman
iStock.com/nickcurteman

Three scientists have cracked the code for pizza perfection. As Live Science reports, a physicist and a food anthropologist in Rome teamed up with a physicist from Northern Illinois University (who also worked in the Italian capital) to figure out how to use an electric oven to bake pizza that’s as good as a wood-fired one.

Their paper, titled “The Physics of Baking Good Pizza,” was published on the pre-print platform arXiv [PDF]. A seasoned pizza-maker in Rome told the researchers that a brick oven was key to crafting a flawless pizza. It should be set at about 626°F (330°C), and the pie should be baked for just two minutes, the pizzaiolo said.

That’s all well and good if you happen to have a wood-fired brick oven at home, but the researchers wanted to test whether the same results could be achieved in an electric oven with a steel surface. They approached the question from a thermodynamic point of view, using the principles of heat transfer, thermal radiation, and water evaporation—factoring in the thickness and temperature of the bottom of the pizza, as well as other characteristics—to come up with the perfect method of cooking a classic Margherita pizza. In case you’re curious, the equation they arrived at looks like this:

The researchers' equation

Essentially, what this means is that similar conditions to a brick oven can be achieved in an electric oven by setting the temperature to 450°F (rounded up from 230°C) and leaving the pizza in there for 170 seconds. However, pizzas with toppings that have a higher water content (especially vegetables) should be left in the oven a little longer in order to take the process of evaporation into account.

The result is a perfectly fine pie, but as the researchers admit, “the dry heat and the smell of wood in traditional firebrick ovens remain the ideal way to bake the perfect pizza.”

[h/t Live Science]

How to Relieve a Tension Headache in 10 Seconds, According to a Physical Therapist

iStock.com/SIphotography
iStock.com/SIphotography

The source of a pounding headache isn't always straightforward. Sometimes over-the-counter painkillers have no effect, and in other cases all you need is a glass of water to ease the pain. When it comes to a specific type of a headache, Prevention recommends a treatment that takes about 10 seconds—no fancy medications or equipment required.

If you're experiencing pain throughout your head and neck, you may have a tension headache. This type of headache can happen when you tense the muscles in your jaw—something many people do when stressed. This tightening triggers a chain reaction where the surrounding muscles in the head and neck become tense, which results in a painful, stiff feeling.

Fortunately, there's a way to treat tension headaches that's even easier than popping an Advil. David Reavy, a physical therapist known for his work with NFL and NBA athletes, recently suggested a solution to Prevention writer Christine Mattheis called the masseter release. To practice it yourself, look for the masseter muscle—the thick tissue that connects your jawbone to your cheekbone on either side of your face—with your fingers. Once you've found them, press the spots gently, open your mouth as wide as you can, close it, and repeat until you feel the muscle relax. Doing this a few times a day helps combat whatever tension is caused by clenching your jaw.

If that doesn't work, it's possible that the masseter muscle isn't the source of your headache after all. In that case, read up on the differences among popular pain killers to determine which one is the best match for your pain.

[h/t Prevention]

Why Do Hangovers Get Worse As You Get Older?

iStock/OcusFocus
iStock/OcusFocus

“I just can’t drink like I used to” is a common refrain among people pushing 30 and beyond. This is roughly the age when it starts getting harder to bounce back from a night of partying, and unfortunately, it keeps getting harder from there on out.

Even if you were the keg flip king or queen in college, consuming the same amount of beer at 29 that you consumed at 21 will likely have you guzzling Gatorade in bed the next day. It’s true that hangovers tend to worsen with age, and it’s not just because you have a lower alcohol tolerance from going out less. Age affects your body in various ways, and the way you process alcohol is one of them.

Because your body interprets alcohol as poison, your liver steps in to convert it into different chemicals that are easier to break down and eliminate from your body. As you get older, though, your liver produces less of the enzymes and antioxidants that help metabolize alcohol, according to a study from South Korea. One of these enzymes—called alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)— has been called the “primary defense” against alcohol. It kicks off the multi-step process of alcohol metabolization by turning the beer or booze—or whatever you imbibed—into a chemical compound called acetaldehyde. Ironically, this substance is even more toxic than your tipple of choice, and a build-up of acetaldehyde can cause nausea, palpitations, and face flushing. It usually isn’t left in this state for long, though.

Another enzyme called aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) helps convert the bad toxin into a new substance called acetate, which is a little like vinegar. Lastly, it’s converted into carbon dioxide or water and expelled from your body. You’ve probably heard the one-drink-per-hour recommendation, which is roughly how long it takes for your liver to complete this whole process.

So what does this mean for occasional drinkers whose mid-20s have come and gone? To summarize: As your liver enzymes diminish with age, your body becomes less efficient at metabolizing alcohol. The alcohol lingers longer in your body, leading to prolonged hangover symptoms like headaches and nausea.

This phenomenon can also partly be explained by the fact that our bodies tend to lose muscle and water over time. People with more body fat don’t break down alcohol as well, and less water in your body means that the booze stays concentrated in your system longer, The Cut reports. This is one of the reasons why women, who tend to have a higher body fat percentage than men, often suffer worse hangovers than their male counterparts. (Additionally, women have fewer ADH enzymes.)

More depressingly, as you get older, your immune system deteriorates through a process called immunosenescence. This means that recovering from anything—hangovers included—is more challenging with age. "When we get older, our whole recovery process for everything we do is harder, longer, and slower," gastroenterologist Mark Welton told Men’s Health.

This may seem like a buzzkill, but we're not telling you to put down the pint. However, if you're going to drink, just be aware of your body’s limitations. Shots of cotton candy-flavored vodka were a bad idea in college, and they’re an especially bad idea now. Trust us.

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