Historians Studying an ‘Ancient’ Scottish Stone Circle Learn It Was Built in the 1990s

A stone circle like this one was recently shown to be a replica.
A stone circle like this one was recently shown to be a replica.
iStock.com/Stephen Buwert

In December 2018, Scottish historians and archaeologists learned of a newly discovered ancient recumbent stone circle on local farmland in Leochel-Cushnie, Aberdeenshire. But this week, their excitement fizzled: According to The Guardian, a former owner of the farmland contacted the historians and admitted the structure was a replica stone circle built in the mid-1990s.

Late last year, local officials inspected the formation and determined that its dimensions, though 10 feet smaller than similar recumbent stone circles, were in line with others found in Scotland. Historic preservationists were thrilled with the discovery. “It is rare for these sites to go unidentified for so long, especially in such a good condition,” Neil Ackerman, a historic environment record assistant at the Aberdeenshire Council, told Aberdeen's Press and Journal.

Recumbent stone circles (RSCs) are specific to the Aberdeenshire region in northeast Scotland as well as southwest Ireland, and they often date back 3500 to 4500 years. RSCs are traditionally found with one large stone slab laid flat on the southern side of the formation, flanked by two tall stones, and made a circle by other stones. RSCs are thought to have served as windows or manmade horizons for specific moon patterns (such as the periodic standstill moon), though they may have been used for rituals and burials.

This one likely served none of those purposes. While it's unclear why the landowners built the stone circle and why they are now coming clean, the truth about its recent vintage was “disappointing,” Ackerman told The Guardian. But, he said, it “adds an interesting element to its story. That it so closely copies a regional monument type shows the local knowledge, appreciation, and engagement with the archaeology of the region by the local community.” He noted that the council is always open to reports of any modern constructions that mimic these ancient monuments.

After 110 Million Years, This Spider Fossil's Eyes Are All Aglow

© Changkun Park, Electron Probe Micro Analyzer, Korea Polar Research Institute
© Changkun Park, Electron Probe Micro Analyzer, Korea Polar Research Institute

A big, hairy spider is enough to give anyone a fright. So you can imagine what a set of eight glowing eyes attached to a body like that might do to an arachnophobe's psyche. One such spider was discovered recently by researchers, but don’t worry—the iridescent-eyed arachnid has been dead for 110 million years.

As Popular Science reports, this rare, fossilized specimen was found in South Korea’s Lower Cretaceous Jinju Formation. The find was unusual for a couple of reasons. For one, spiders are not usually preserved in rock because the soft-bodied creatures decay easily. It’s also not every day that you see a long-dead spider with glowing eyes. On top of that, researchers found two well-preserved examples of these spiders, which were described in a recent issue of the Journal of Systematic Palaeontology.

Both specimens belong to Lagonomegopidae, an extinct family that predated jumping spiders. The glow is caused by a layer of tissue called tapetum lucidum, which coats the spider’s eyes and reflects light, allowing the spider to hunt at night with ease. Many animals have it—including cats, dogs, horses, deer, raccoons, and some modern spiders—but this is the first paper to describe its existence in a fossilized spider. The tapetum is crescent-shaped and “looks a bit like a Canadian canoe,” according to Paul Selden, a geology professor at the University of Kansas and co-author of the paper.

“Because these spiders were preserved in strange silvery flecks on dark rock, what was immediately obvious was their rather large eyes brightly marked with crescentic features,” Selden said in a statement.

The fossilized spider
Paul Selden

Researchers now want to go back and take another look at similar spiders preserved in amber, which are far more common than spiders fossilized in rock. The challenge is determining whether those specimens also have a layer of tapetum lucidum coating their eyes.

“Amber fossils are beautiful, they look wonderful, but they preserve things in a different way,” Selden said. “Now, we want to go back and look at the amber fossils and see if we can find the tapetum, which stares out at you from rock fossils but isn’t so obvious in amber ones because the mode of preservation is so different.”

[h/t Popular Science]

A (Still-Sharp) Medieval Sword Was Pulled from a Sewer in Denmark

Pipe layer Jannick Vestergaard and engineer Henning Nøhr hold up the sword they found.
Pipe layer Jannick Vestergaard and engineer Henning Nøhr hold up the sword they found.
Nordjyllands Historiske Museum (Historical Museum of Northern Jutland)

If the legend of King Arthur and Excalibur is anything to go by, anyone who successfully extracts a sword in a stone will be treated like royalty. The fable doesn’t say anything about the reward one gets for removing a medieval weapon from feces, though.

As Smithsonian reports, a pipe layer and an engineer recently found a sword from the medieval era while doing construction work on a sewer in Aalborg, Denmark’s fourth-largest city. The relic was plucked from a layer of waste that had accumulated atop an old slab of pavement that once ran through the city.

Most remarkably, the sword was still intact—and the blade still sharp. It’s about 3.5 feet long and of extremely high quality, according to archaeologists. The sword may have been used between 1100 and 1400, but the likeliest explanation is that it got separated from its owner sometime in the 14th century. “Findings from here have always pointed to the 1300s, so the sword must have ended up in the earth in this century,” archaeologist Kenneth Nielsen said in a translated statement.

The sword next to a tape measure
Nordjyllands Historiske Museum (Historical Museum of Northern Jutland)

It’s rare for such an important historical artifact to turn up in such an unlikely—and unhygienic—place. Swords were valuable and highly prized possessions, and they were treated as such. They were typically buried with their owners, but no graves are situated above the sewer where the weapon was found.

The country’s history offers some clues about what may have transpired, though. In the 1300s, power struggles and internecine war were common throughout Denmark. “The best explanation we can come up with is that the owner of the sword was defeated in a battle,” Nielsen told The Local Denmark. “In the tumult, it was then trod down into the layer of mud that formed the street back then.”

Similarly, a 14th-century sword was found in a Polish peat bog in 2017, and archaeologists suspect the owner either sunk into the marsh and met a grisly end, or merely dropped his weapon and was unable to retrieve it.

While these questions will likely remain unanswered, members of the public will have the chance to admire the Danish "sewer sword" in all its glory at the Aalborg Historiske Museum (Aalborg Historical Museum), which is located near the site where the sword was found. Fortunately for future visitors, it will be cleaned and preserved first.

[h/t Smithsonian]

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