6 Ways Humans Influence the Weather

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iStock

If you've ever spent any length of time on Twitter, you've probably heard a thing or two about humans secretly having the ability to control the weather. While that talent only exists in movies, we humans and our everyday activities do indirectly influence the weather in ways that go far beyond our production of greenhouse gases. Climate scientists and meteorologists have documented these effects for years. 

1. CITIES FORM HEAT ISLANDS.

sunlight shining through city streets and buildings
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They're not exactly wrong when they call the capital of Georgia "Hotlanta." Most populated areas generate heat simply by existing. The dense web of asphalt roads, concrete sidewalks, brick facades, and tar roofs are able to absorb a significant amount of heat from the daytime sun, even in the dead of winter. This human-made insulation, called the urban heat island effect, keeps city centers a tad hotter on hot days and a little less cool on cold days.

While the urban heat island effect might make you think of burning-hot asphalt, it's actually most noticeable during winter storms when air temperatures are hovering right around freezing, putting you right on the line between wet snow, an icy mix, or a cold rain. The artificial warmth from cities can influence the precipitation type in these storms, potentially lowering a city’s snow accumulations compared to its suburbs.

A 2011 study published in the Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology [PDF] also found that the urban heat island effect can have a pronounced impact on thunderstorms that form over cities. The researchers studied 91 summertime thunderstorms that formed over Indianapolis, Indiana, and found that their research models could not replicate those thunderstorms without the influence of the urban area beneath the storms.

2. CROPS JACK UP THE HUMIDITY.

wheat crops growing in a field
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If cities can absorb the heat of the day and make it even hotter, you can imagine how the vast swaths of crops that blanket the countryside can also affect our daily weather. Instead of making it hotter, crops can make a humid day unbearable by sending moisture levels almost off the charts on a putrid summer's day.

Corn crops are notorious for pushing dew points—the temperature at which the air reaches 100 percent humidity—up above 80°F in the middle of the summer, creating a dangerous heat index that soars far above 100°F. Compare that to a muggy day, which has a dew point around 70°F, or a comfortably dry day with a dew point in the low 50s.

The harvest can have the opposite effect. In 2016, Mesonet, a network of weather stations in Oklahoma, found that newly harvested areas of wheat in the northern part of the state were hotter and had a lower dew point than their cooler but muggier surroundings.

3. PAVING INCREASES THE INTENSITY OF FLOODS.

multilane highway with heavy traffic
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Our obsession with construction doesn't stop at influencing temperatures. Paving over porous earth with relatively impervious materials like asphalt and concrete has also had a major impact on flooding during heavy rain events. Fewer places for rainwater to escape means that the sudden influx of water builds up in urban areas or runs off and inundates places that had never seen flooding before.

4. NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS CAN TRIGGER NUCLEAR-EFFECT SNOW.

nuclear power plant during the winter
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Lake effect snow is a yearly phenomenon across North America’s Great Lakes, where bitterly cold air flows over the warm lake water, triggering convection that blows ashore as heavy bands of snow. The bands of snow are so intense that communities can see many feet of snow in one day, sometimes accompanied by thunder and lightning.

It's not only bodies of water that can cause this phenomenon. Nuclear power plants release large amounts of steam during the course of their operations, and on cold mornings when there's enough moisture in the air, locations immediately downwind of a power plant's steam stacks can experience "nuclear-effect snow," which forms through similar means as lake effect snow. The phenomenon isn't limited to just nuclear power plants, but they produce enough steam that it’s noticeable over a large area. Thankfully for residents nearby, it doesn't produce much snow—and it’s not radioactive.

5. URBAN DENSITY CAN AMPLIFY WINDS.

girls talking selfie in paris as wind whips their hair around
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If you've ever walked down a city street on a windy day, you’ve probably noticed that it sometimes feels like you're being buffeted by air shot out of an industrial fan instead of a regular windstorm. Dense building construction can amplify the winds and cause gusts to blow much faster than they would out in the open. This wind tunnel effect can cause serious damage, blowing out windows, knocking down trees, and sending dangerous debris hurtling toward the busy streets below.

The principle is the same as holding your thumb over the end of a garden hose to make the water spray out faster—the wind speeds up dramatically as it presses between the buildings. This is also why you should never take shelter underneath a bridge during a tornado. The tornadic winds squeezing underneath the bridge will speed up, increasing the odds that you’ll be pelted by debris or sucked out into the open.

6. JETS CREATE CIRRUS CLOUDS.

plane exhaust in the sky with a foreground of bushes and trees
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The simple act of flying can also create intricate patterns of clouds in the sky that wouldn't have formed had we not perfected the art of air travel. The hot water vapor produced by the engine exhaust of a high-flying jet aircraft leaves contrails, short for condensation trails, in its wake. Contrails can dissipate right away or linger for hours depending on upper-level humidity and winds. These man-made cirrus clouds are most common at high cruising altitudes, but places like the Arctic and Antarctic get cold enough that contrails can form at or near ground level.

Editor's note: This story, which originally ran in 2016, was updated in August 2018.

11 Things You Might Not Know About Neil Armstrong

NASA/Hulton Archive/Getty Images
NASA/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

No matter where private or government space travel may take us in the future, NASA astronaut Neil Armstrong (1930-2012) will forever have a place as the first human to ever set foot on solid ground outside of our atmosphere. Taking “one small step” onto the Moon on July 20, 1969, he inspired generations of ambitious people to reach for the stars in their own lives. On the 50th anniversary of Apollo 11, we're taking a look back at the life of this American hero.

1. Neil Armstrong knew how to fly before he got a driver's license.

Neil Armstrong poses for a portrait 10 years before the 1969 Apollo mission
NASA/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Born August 5, 1930 in Wapakoneta, Ohio, Armstrong became preoccupied with aviation early on. At around age 6, his father took him on a ride in a Ford Trimotor airplane, one of the most popular airplanes in the world. By age 15, he had accumulated enough flying lessons to command a cockpit, reportedly before he ever earned his driver’s license. During the Korean War, Armstrong flew 78 combat missions before moving on to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), the precursor to NASA.

2. Neil Armstrong's famous quote was misheard back on Earth.

When Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin touched down on the Moon, hundreds of millions of television viewers were riveted. Armstrong could be heard saying, “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.” But that’s not exactly what he said. According to the astronaut, he was fairly sure he stated, “That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.” The “a” may have broken up on transmission or it may have been obscured as a result of his speaking patterns. (According to First Man: The Life of Neil A. Armstrong, Armstrong said, “I’m not particularly articulate. Perhaps it was a suppressed sound that didn’t get picked up by the voice mike. As I have listened to it, it doesn’t sound like there was time for the word to be there. On the other hand, I think that reasonable people will realize that I didn’t intentionally make an inane statement, and certainly the ‘a’ was intended, because that’s the only way the statement makes any sense. So I would hope that history would grant me leeway for dropping the syllable and understand that it was certainly intended, even if it wasn’t said—although it actually might have been.”) Armstrong claimed the statement was spontaneous, but his brother and others have claimed he had written it down prior to the mission.

3. We don't have a really good picture of Neil Armstrong on the Moon.

Buzz Aldrin is seen walking on the moon
NASA/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

One of the most celebrated human achievements of the 20th century came at a time when video and still cameras were readily available—yet there are precious few images of Armstrong actually walking on the surface of the Moon. (One of the most iconic shots, above, is Aldrin; Armstrong only appears as a reflection in his helmet.) The reason, according to Armstrong, is that he really didn’t care and didn’t think to ask Aldrin to snap some photos. “I don't think Buzz had any reason to take my picture, and it never occurred to me that he should,” Armstrong told his biographer, James R. Hansen. “I have always said that Buzz was the far more photogenic of the crew."

4. A door hinge may have made all the difference to the Apollo 11 mission.

Theories abound as to why it was Armstrong and not Buzz Aldrin who first set foot on the Moon. (On the Gemini missions, the co-pilot did the spacewalks, while the commander stayed in the craft. For Apollo 11, Armstrong was the commander.) The answer may have been the simple logistics of getting out of their lunar module. The exit had a right hinge that opened inwardly, with the man sitting on the left (Armstrong) having the most unobstructed path to the outside. Aldrin would have essentially had to climb over Armstrong to get out first.

5. Neil Armstrong was more concerned about landing on the Moon than he was walking on it.

The lunar module that took NASA astronauts to the moon
NASA/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

The romantic notion of a human stepping foot on space soil captured imaginations, but for Armstrong, it was getting there in one piece that was the real accomplishment. The lunar module Armstrong controlled had to be brought down on the Moon’s surface from 50,000 feet up, avoiding rocks, craters, and other obstacles as it jockeyed into a position for landing. Because there is no air resistance, nothing could slow their descent, and they used thrusters to guide the craft down. That meant there was only enough fuel to attempt it once. The “business” of getting down the ladder was, in Armstrong’s view, less significant.

6. Neil Armstrong was carrying a bag worth $1.8 million.

When Armstrong surveyed the surface of the Moon, he collected a bag of dust for NASA scientists to examine. Apollo moon samples are illegal to buy or sell, but that apparently wasn't the case with the “lunar collection bag” Armstrong used to hold the samples. In 2015, the bag was purchased by Chicago resident Nancy Lee Carlson from a government auction site for $995. But its sale was, apparently, an accident: When Carlson sent the bag to NASA to confirm its authenticity, NASA said it was their property and refused to send it back—so Carlson took the agency to court. A judge ruled it belonged to Carlson, and in 2017, she sold the bag for a whopping $1.8 million at a Sotheby’s auction.

7. Neil Armstrong and his fellow Apollo 11 astronauts had to spend three weeks in quarantine.

Richard Nixon greets the returning Apollo 11 astronauts
NASA/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

When Armstrong, Aldrin, and Michael Collins (who remained behind in the command module while the other two touched down on the Moon) returned to Earth and were fetched by the USS Hornet, they got a king’s welcome. The only asterisk: They had to bask in their newfound fame from inside a sealed chamber. All three men were quarantined for three weeks in the event they had picked up any strange space virus. When President Richard Nixon visited, he greeted them through the chamber’s glass window.

8. Neil Armstrong's space suit was made by Playtex.

Yes, the undergarment people. In the early 1960s, NASA doled out contract work for their space suits to government suppliers, but it was Playtex (or more properly the International Latex Corporation) and their understanding of fabrics and seams that led to NASA awarding them responsibility for the Apollo mission suits. Their A7L suit was what Armstrong wore to insulate himself against the harsh void of space when he made his famous touchdown. The astronaut called it “reliable” and even “cuddly.”

9. Neil Armstrong became a university professor.

Newil Armstrong sits behind a desk in 1970
AFP/Getty Images

Following his retirement from NASA in 1971, Armstrong was reticent to remain in the public eye. Demands for his time were everywhere, and he had little ambition to become a walking oral history of his singular achievement. Instead, he accepted a job as a professor of engineering at the University of Cincinnati and remained on the faculty for eight years.

10. Neil Armstrong once sued Hallmark.

Hallmark was forced to defend itself when Armstrong took issue with the company using his name and likeness without permission for a 1994 Christmas ornament. The bulb depicted Armstrong and came with a sound chip that said phrases like, “The Eagle has landed.” The two parties came to an undisclosed but “substantial” settlement in 1995, which was, according to First Man, donated to Purdue University (minus legal fees).

11. Neil Armstrong was a Chrysler pitchman.

Armstrong’s preference to lead a private life continued over the decades, but he did make one notable exception. For a 1979 Super Bowl commercial spot, Armstrong agreed to appear on camera endorsing Chrysler automobiles. Armstrong said he did it because he wanted the struggling U.S. car maker to improve their sales and continue contributing to the domestic economy. The ads never mentioned Armstrong was an astronaut.

Pioneering Heart Surgeon René Favaloro Is Being Honored With a Google Doodle

Dr. René Favaloro (left) pictured with colleague Dr. Mason Sones.
Dr. René Favaloro (left) pictured with colleague Dr. Mason Sones.
The Cleveland Clinic Center for Medical Art & Photography, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY 4.0

Argentinian heart surgeon René Favaloro is the subject of today’s Google Doodle, which features a sketched portrait of the doctor along with an anatomical heart and several medical tools, The Independent reports.

The renowned doctor was born on this day in 1923 in La Plata, the capital of Argentina’s Buenos Aires province, and pursued a degree in medicine at La Plata University. After 12 years as a doctor in La Pampa, where he established the area’s first mobile blood bank, trained nurses, and built his own operating room, Favaloro relocated to the U.S. to specialize in thoracic surgery at the Cleveland Clinic.

In 1967, Favaloro performed coronary bypass surgery on a 51-year-old woman whose right coronary artery was blocked, restricting blood flow to her heart. Coronary bypass surgery involves taking a healthy vein from elsewhere in the body (in this case, Favaloro borrowed from the patient’s leg, but you can also use a vein from the arm or chest), and using it to channel the blood from the artery to the heart, bypassing the blockage. According to the Mayo Clinic, it doesn’t cure whatever heart disease that caused the blocked artery, but it can relieve symptoms like chest pain and shortness of breath, and it gives patients time to make other lifestyle changes to further manage their disease.

Favaloro wasn’t keen on being called the “father” of coronary bypass surgery, but his work brought the procedure to the forefront of the clinical field. He moved back to Argentina in 1971 and launched the Favaloro Foundation to train surgeons and treat a variety of patients from diverse economic backgrounds.

Favaloro died by suicide on July 29, 2000, at the age of 77, by a gunshot wound to the chest. His wife had died several years prior, and his foundation had fallen deeply into debt, which Argentinian hospitals and medical centers declined to help pay, The New York Times reported at the time.

“As a surgeon, Dr. Favaloro will be remembered for his ingenuity and imagination,” his colleague Dr. Denton A. Cooley wrote in a tribute shortly after Favaloro’s death. “But as a man ... he will be remembered for his compassion and selflessness.” Today would have been his 96th birthday.

[h/t The Independent]

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